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COPWUGMT DEPOSES 



KNOWING AND USING 
WORDS 



WILLIAM D/ LEWIS, A.M., D.Pd. 

PRINCIPAL OF THE 

WILLIAM PENN HIGH SCHOOL 

PHILADELPHIA 



AND 

MABEL DODGE HOLMES, A.M. 

TEACHER OF ENGLISH IN THE 

WILLIAM PENN HIGH SCHOOL 

PHILADELPHIA 



&H< 



ALLYN and BACON 

Boston Nefo gotk Chicago 






COPYRIGHT, 1917, BY 
WILLIAM D. LEWIS AND MABEL D. HOLMES 



WortoooU Press 
J. S. Cushing Co. — Berwick & Smith Co. 

LC Control Number 




tmp96 027992 



PREFACE 

Language is the clothing of one's thought. If it is 
spoken, the quality of the voice, the purity of the 
vowels, the distinctness of the consonants, all combine 
to indicate the social and intellectual rank of the 
speaker. That accuracy which is perfectly easy and 
natural is an invaluable passport in business and 
society. Inaccuracy, slovenliness, or studied preci- 
sion is infallible evidence of lack of culture. 

If language is written, it is, as it were, an exhibition 
of thought on dress parade. The sentences must be 
easy to understand ; their connection and sequence must 
be natural and clear ; their groupings into paragraphs 
must be logical and helpful in conveying the whole 
thought. A misspelled word is a dirty fingermark on 
the mental linen. 

In both spoken and written expression the choice 
of the right word is imperative. The nice distinctions 
that lend subtle charm can come only from acquaint- 
ance with the derivation and connotation of the words 
themselves and with their infinite variety of relation- 
ships in idiomatic literary usage. 

The authors of " Knowing and Using Words " have 
endeavored to make a contribution to the literature 
of one of the most baffling studies of the American 
school. The book is not so much a textbook to be 

iii 



IV 



Preface 



learned as it is a laboratory manual to guide the learner 
in establishing a method for the mastery of the word- 
basis of his spoken and written expression. 

W. D. L. 

M.D.H. 

Philadelphia, 
August, 1917. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Introduction : The Book in the Classroom 

Chapter One : Correct Pronunciation page 

1. Diacritical Marks and. Vowel Sounds ... 1 

2. Pronouncing Vowels and Diphthongs ... 2 

3. The Dictionary Key 3 

4. Accent and Enunciation ..... 4 

5. Mispronunciation Leads to Misspelling ... 7 

6. Words often Mispronounced and Misspelled . . 8 

7. Supplementary Word-Lists for Practice in Pronun- 

ciation 12 

Chapter Two : Words Confused and Misused 

8. Words of Similar Sound 14 

9. Sentence-Practice . . . . . . .16 

10. Supplementary Word-Lists for Correcting Confusion 

in Meaning .18 

Chapter Three : The Derivation of Words 

11. Dictionary Practice 20 

12. Words with Stories 21 

13. Other Languages in English Words ... 24 

14. Supplementary Lists for Dictionary Drill . . 25 

Chapter Four : Word-Growth and Word-Building ; Roots 
and Prefixes 

15. Roots 27 

16. Prefixes and Suffixes 29 

17. Supplementary Lists of Words with Simple Prefixes 33 

Chapter Five: Word-Growth and Word-Building ; Eu- 
phonic Changes 

18. Ad 35 

19. Dis and Mis * . .36 

20. Ex and In . . 38 



VI 



Table of Contents 



21. 
22. 



Con and Sub 
Review . 



Chapter Six : Word-Growth and Word-Building ; Suf- 
fixes 



23-24. Suffixes . . . 

25. Changes in Roots ..... 

26. Parts of Speech Made by Suffixes . 
27-32. Rules for Spelling Words with Suffixes 

27. The Suffix Beginning with a Vowel 

28. Final Silent E . . 

29. Final Y 

30. Double-L in Derivative Words 

31. Double Letters at Junction Points 

32. Review . ..... 

33. Danger Points in Spelling 



Chapter Seven : Word-Building and Word-Analysis 

34. Family Groups 

35. Word- Analysis 

36-38. Word-Interpretation 

39. Word-Building 

40. Word-Analysis ...... 

41. Word-Building . . . ... 

42. Word-Analysis 



Chapter Eight : What Words Sat for Us 

Right Word to Express an Idea 

43-44. Exact Words to Express Ideas 

45. Word-Building for Sentence Use 

46. Long Words for Short 

47. Choosing One of Two Words 

48. Overworked Words . 

49. Words for Exact Description 

50. Exact Narrative Words . 



Finding the 



PAGE 

39 
40 



41 
43 

44 

44 
46 
48 
50 
51 
52 
54 



56 
58 
59 
60 
61 
61 
62 



63 
66 
67 
68 
69 
70 
71 



Chapter Nine : What Words Say to Us ; Interpreting 
the Ideas of Others 

51. Interpretation; Short Words for Long ... 73 

52. Interpretation of Words .74 

53. Interpretation of Ideas Suggested by Words . . 75 



Table of Contents vii 

PAGE 

54. Simplifying Hard Words . . . .75 

55. Interpretation of Derivative Words ... 76 

56. Supplementary Passages for Interpretation . . 77 

Chapter Ten : Words that Must Be Remembered 

57-62. Devices for Remembering Troublesome Words 

57. Useful Memory Groups 83 

58. Obscure Vowels 85 

59. IE and EI 86 

60. E, EA, and EE 87 

61. Review . .89 

62. OU, AU, andOA 89 

63-65. Plurals of Nouns 

63-64. Rules for Plurals 91 

65. Irregular Plurals 93 

66. Proper Names 94 

67. Current Words 95 

68-71. Doubtful Suffixes 96 

72. Review . . . 103 

Appendix 

Tables for Reference 

Table I. Common Prefixes 105 

Table II. Less Common Prefixes ..... 108 

Table III. Common Suffixes 109 

Table IV. Latin and Greek Words Used as Basis in 

English Words 112 

Common Words Often Misspelled 

Household Words 119 

Social Words 122 

Business Words 123 

Schoolroom Words ........ 124 



THE BOOK IN THE CLASSROOM 

The authors of " Knowing and Using Words " 
realize that there will be as many ways of using this 
laboratory manual as there are teachers who use it. 
But a word or two of suggestion as to methods which 
should help to secure the best results may not be amiss. 

Time Allotment. — Either one of two plans may be 
adopted : The teacher who has plenty of time to de- 
vote to this phase of the subject may work straight 
through the book from the beginning in leisurely 
development ; the teacher who has, perhaps, but one 
hour a week for word-study may fit together lessons 
from the various parts of the book which will make 
a shorter course of study. The habit of looking into 
the structure, relation, meaning, and spelling of words 
is so valuable that the authors believe that the book 
will be useful for reference throughout the high school 
course. 

Short Assignments. — In either case special care 
should be taken not to dispense the material in too 
large doses. It will often be desirable to divide a 
topic into two, three, or even four assignments. 

Sentence Work. — The book devotes one section 
definitely to the use of words in sentences. As is 
frequently suggested elsewhere, these sentence lessons 
may be interspersed as the teacher wishes among the 



x Introduction 

word-study lessons. Of course the teacher who has 
plenty of time will do a large amount of work of this 
sort, directing the pupils with almost every lesson on 
word building to make sentences containing those 
words, or to find examples of the use of the words in 
the pages of books that they are reading. 

Webster's International Dictionary. — The authors 
fully realize that many teachers, from choice or from 
convenience, will prefer some other dictionary than 
Webster's International. The object to be attained 
is not the use of any special dictionary, but the forma- 
tion of the dictionary habit. In such a book as this, 
however, some one standard must be adopted, and 
Webster has been made the standard because of its 
general accessibility for school use. 

Supplementary Material. — At various points through- 
out the book will be found supplementary material, in 
part word lists, in part paragraphs for interpretation, 
which are not essential to the development of the 
thought, but which may be used at the teacher's 
discretion to give practice in applying the princi- 
ples learned. The supplementary lessons on pronun- 
ciation, for example, may be used from time to 
time while the student is proceeding with the lessons 
on word building, to keep fresh the memory of the 
principles of pronunciation. Several lessons not called 
supplementary may be omitted if the teacher thinks 
best, or used only for reference. Part of the supple- 
mentary material is in the shape of tables of root- 
words, suffixes, and prefixes in the form of an appendix. 
These, of course, are strictly for reference. It may be 
added that the Latin roots are not presented here as 



Introduction xi 

in any way introductory to a study of Latin, but only 
as a very essential part of an intelligent knowledge 
of English. 

History of the English Language. — If it seems de- 
sirable, in connection with section 13, to give a more 
complete treatment of the growth of the English lan- 
guage, helpful material will be found in the following 
books : 

Wyld : The Growth of English. 

Krapp : Modern English : Its Growth and Present Use. 

Greenotjgh & Kittridge : Words and Their Ways in English 

Speech. 
J. M. Meikeljohn : A Brief History of the English Language and 

Literature. 

Spirit and Attitude. — The statement with which the 
preface closes cannot be overemphasized. To achieve 
its purpose, the book must be handled, not as a basis 
for memory work, as a series of lessons to be learned 
and recited, but as a laboratory manual suggesting 
practice work to be done, the doing of which will fix 
the principles underlying it in the mind of the pupil. 



CHAPTER I 
PRONUNCIATION AND ENUNCIATION 

1. Diacritical Marks and Vowel Sounds 

Imagine yourself for a moment a foreigner, looking 
up in a dictionary the word daughter, which you have 
seen in print but have not heard pronounced. You 
would naturally pronounce its first syllable just like the 
word laugh, which you have heard spoken; but the 
dictionary tells you not to. In what way does it tell 
you ? How can a line of print be made to convey a sound ? 
The dictionary does so by means of certain lines and 
dots which we know as " Diacritical Marks." 

The word diacritical comes from two Greek words, 
dia meaning by means of and krinein meaning to dis- 
tinguish; so that the marks are those by means of 
which we distinguish the sounds of the letters to which 
they are attached. The following table shows the 
sounds indicated by some of the diacritical marks 
which in Webster's International Dictionary accom- 
pany the vowels. 



ETTER 


Mark 


Pronunciation 


Letter 


Mark 


Pronunciation 


a 


a 


as in fate 


a 


a 


as in fare 


a 


a 


as in fat 


a 


a 


as in fall 


a 


a 


as in father 


a 


a 


as in forward 


a 


a 


as in fast 


a 


a 


as in forage 



Knowing and Using Words 



STTEK 


Mark 


Pr 


>NPNCIATION 


Letter 


Mark 


Pronunciation 


e 


e 


as 


in even 





6 


as : 


m other 


e 


6 


as i 


in end 








as 


in work 


e 


e 


as 


m event 


00 


00 


as 


in foot 


e 


e 


as 


in ermine 


00 


00 


as : 


in food 


i 


I 


as 


in ice 


u 


il 


as 


m use 


i 


I 


as 


mill 


u 


■a 


as in us 


i 


I 


as 


m irksome 


n 


u 


as 


in urn 





6 


as ] 


in old 


u 


u 


as 


m humane 





5 


as 


m odd 


n 


U 


as 


in rude 





6 


as 


m obey 


u 


u 


as 


m put 





6 


as 


m orb 


y 


y 


as 


in lyric 








as 


in wolf 


y 


y 


as 


in why 








as 


in tomb 


y 


y 


as 


in martyr 



EXERCISES 

1. How many sounds has each vowel, as indicated by 
the tables above ? 

2. Find any sounds of a that are identical with sounds of 
i, e, o, or u. 

3. Find sounds of e, i, o, and u that are alike. 

4. Like what other vowel sounds are the y sounds ? 

5. Think of three more words to illustrate each of the 
vowel sounds. 



2. Pronouncing Vowels and Diphthongs 

Of course, when you have learned the sounds of the 
vowels in certain words, you should make use of that 
knowledge by pronouncing the words correctly. But, 
natural as that seems, the vowels are seldom all pro- 
nounced correctly even by a fairly well-educated person. 
Of all the vowels, a receives the most unkind treat- 
ment. The a in half is marked a ; the a in past is 



Pronunciation and Enunciation 3 

marked a; yet in many localities one usually hears 
people say "half past three." 

If one dares to pronounce these words correctly, 
and not according to local custom, he is sometimes 
laughed at for " affectation." Such ridicule only 
shows the carelessness or ignorance of the person 
who indulges in it. It should not discourage the 
seeker after correct speech, for it is not affectation 
to try to pronounce words according to dictionary 
guidance. 

A is not the only letter that is mispronounced ; for 
instance, u is often badly treated. Notice that long 
u (u) is not pronounced like oo but like you. Many 
people say blue and tune and allure as if they were 
spelled bloo, and toon, and alloor. And the unfortu- 
nate u that follows the t in nature often destroys both 
itself and its neighbor, for few will stop to say natyure 
instead of natcher. 

Not only should one be careful to sound the vowels 
correctly, but he should also watch the diphthongs. 
Notice especially the sounds of the diphthongs follow- 
ing : 

Ou, in such words as house, has the sound of ow, not 
of eow or aow. Do not say heouse or haouse. You 
should also watch carefully that you do not insert an 
a or an e in words spelt with ow; do not say daown 
taown. 

Au, in many such words as aunt, laugh, haunt, 
is sounded like a. Do not say ant, laff, hdnt, or 
hawnt. 

Ew, in such words as dew and new, is sounded like 
you. Do not say doo and noo. 



4 Knowing and Using Words 

EXERCISES 

1. Pronounce correctly, according to the marks given, the 
vowel and diphthong sounds in the following words ; noting 
that in this list of words italics are used to indicate silent 
letters. 



accurate 


laundry (au = a) 


shone 


bicycle 


hearth 


tomato or tomato 


coupon (ou = oo) 


catch (not ketch) 


sloua/i (ou = ow) 


gaunt (au = a) 


cellar (not suller) 


weapon 


calf 


daunt (au = a) 


can't 


been (ee == i) 


doth 


half 


deaf 


heroine 


virile 


direct 


literature 


class 


drama 


national 


alternate 


fertile 


faucet (au = aw) 


newspaper (e w = u) 


genuine 


gape 


grass 


because (au = aw) 


saucy (au = aw) 
prelude 


afternoon 



In practicing the correct pronunciation of these words, 
do you recognize cases where your own customary pronun- 
ciation or the one you most frequently hear is faulty? Be 
ready to report on such discoveries. 

2. Make a list of words that you habitually mispronounce. 
Call it your " Never- Again List." 



3. The Dictionary Key 

In order that you may be at once familiar with 
the way in which the dictionary shows how to pro- 
nounce words, the following words are here reproduced 
exactly as they appear in Webster's International 
Dictionary. At the foot of the opposite page is the key 
to pronunciation as you will find it at the bottom of 



Pronunciation and Enunciation 



every page of that work. Pronounce the words, by con- 
sulting the key. 1 Italicized letters are called neutral 
or obscure. 



artificial (ar'ti-fish'dl) 
capable (ka/pd-b'l) 
homeopathic (ho'nie-6-path'ik) 
mountainous (moun'ti-n^s) 
precedent (preVe-dent) 
centennial (sen-ten'I-al) 
sculp'tor (skulp'ter) 
troublesome (trub"l-swm) 
duty (du'ti) 
promise (promts) 
betrothed (be-trothd') 
zoology (zo-61'6-ji) 
bronchitis (bron-ki'tis) 
cruel (croo'el) 
reptile (rep'tll) 
stupid (stu'p^d) 
ayenue (av'e-nu) 
laugh (laf) 
command (ko-mand') 
psalm (sam) 



advantage (dd-van'taj) 

resolution (rez'6-lu'srmn) 

roof (roof) 

behold (be-hold') 

extraordinary (gks-tror'di-na-ri) 

rather (ra'ther) 

donkey (don'ki) 

apparatus (ap'd-ra/t^s) 

was (woz) 

bouquet (boo-ka/) 

laboratoiy (lab'o-rd-to'-rl) 

conspiracy (kon-spir'd-sl) 

author (6'ther) 

lenient (le'nl-ent or len'yent) 

pathos (pa/thos) 

patriotic (pa/trl-6t'ik) 

coffee (kof 'I) 

profile (pro'fil or pro'fel) 

charade (shd-rad') 

docile (dos'Il) 



4. Accent and Enunciation 

You may give exactly the right sounds to the letters, 
and yet not pronounce your words correctly because 
you do not put the accent in the right place. To pre- 

1 Key : ale, senate, care, am, account, arm, ask, sofd ; 
eve, event, end, recent, maker ; 
ice, ill ; 

old, obey, orb, odd, soft, connect ; 
use, unite, urn, tip, circus, menu ; 
food, foot. 



6 Knowing and Using Words 

vent such errors, the accent mark appears in the dic- 
tionary. For instance, how do you usually pronounce 
the word hospitable? Many people mispronounce it, 
for they have not noticed that the dictionary puts an 
accent mark on the first syllable — hospitable! 

There is still a third error in the speaking of words, 
which is a matter not of wrong pronunciation but of 
wrong enunciation. This mistake is made by the per- 
son who knows the sounds the letters ought to have, 
and thinks he is giving those sounds, but who does 
not use his tongue and lips and teeth so as to form 
those sounds distinctly. Perhaps he talks through his 
nose or down in his throat or runs his words together 
in a disagreeable fashion. 

This is the kind of person who clips off his #'s at the 
ends of words, and who tells you that he a doesn' like 
to study Ladun a-tall," or that his father says he'll 
"haftu stay in school, but he isn't gunta" or 
"gona." The dictionary will help toward right pro- 
nunciation, but only care and pains on the part of the 
speaker can make for right enunciation. * Nothing 
more clearly marks the person of cultivation and 
refinement than good enunciation. 

EXERCISES 

1. Look up the accent of the following words and pro- 
nounce them correctly. It will help you to remember them 
if you write the words and mark their accents. 

advertisement illustration inquiry influence 

despicable • chastisement interesting gondola 
illustrate theatre legislature idea 



Pronunciation and Enunciation 



recess 


pianist 


mischievous infamous 


address 


formidable 


detail 


mustache 


ally 


condolence 


romance 


superfluous 


2. Practice the clear enunciation of the consonants and 


syllables in the following words and phrases 




volume 


immediate 


seeing 


I ought to have 


column 


perspiration 


English 


gone 


Lincoln 


pumpkin 


partner 


let me alone 


hanging 


moisten 


Latin 


both of them 


courteous 


often 


villain 


not at all 


grievous 


omelet 


really 


I kept it just 


handkerchiel 


[ poem 


I used to 


the same 


clothes 


perhaps 


I am going to 


I would have 


twelfth 


I don't know 


I have to 


tried 



Can you see what mistakes in spelling might result from 
lack of care in the enunciation of any of these words ? Have 
you ever made any of these mistakes? 



5. Mispronunciation Leads to Misspelling 

Have you ever said, to excuse yourself for mistakes 
in spelling, "Oh, well, a speller is born, not made"? 
That is not as true as it is of the poet or the artist. 
There are various reasons why people spell badly; if 
you can find the cause of your mistake, you can avoid 
the mistake by removing the cause. The faulty pro- 
nunciation about which we have been studying is one 
of the causes of bad spelling. 

Do you ever misspell a word because you do not hear 
it correctly? For example, do you speak of your 
[wrong] " mischievious little brother"? If you do, 
you are likely to spell the word wrongly, as it appears 



8 Knowing and Using Words 

here. Do you speak of the [wrong] "atheletic asso- 
ciation"? Do you say, "The plan [wrong] attracks 
me" ? Write and pronounce each of these wrong words 
correctly. From these illustrations it is clear that, 
besides being important in itself, knowing how to 
pronounce correctly has very important results in 
helping us to spell correctly. 

EXERCISES 

1. The following words are often misspelled because 
mispronounced. Think how you have heard them spoken. 
What errors in spelling might result? Find and practice 
their correct pronunciation, and notice that the spelling in- 
dicates the correct sound. 



surprise 


perhaps 


suddenly 


squirrel 


unusual 


government 


library 


whisper 


quarter 


laboratory 


February 


similar 


twelfth 


buoyant 


which 


. emeralds 


tragedy 


extraordinary 


society 


statue 



2. Add to your " Never Again List " any of these words 
that you habitually mispronounce. Note any of them that 
you have also misspelled because of your mispronunciation, 
and indicate each such error by a letter S beside the word 
on the list. 



6. Words Often Mispronounced and Misspelled 

The words in each of the following groups are likely 
to suffer from some one kind of error in pronunciation, 
and are consequently often misspelled. In the first 
column you will find the troublesome letters in 
heavy type ; in the second column no such help is 
provided. 



Pronunciation and Enunciation 



EXERCISES 

1. The following words are often mispronounced because 
of failure to sound letters that should be sounded. These 
letters are in heavy type in the first column. Discover for 
yourself the troublesome letters in the second column, and 
write the words, underlining those letters. Practice speak- 
ing all the words correctly. 



usually 


artistically 


regular 


poetry 


difference 


whisper 


calculate 


white 


temperance 


varying 


naturally 


society 


governor 


every 


superintendent 


history 


delivery 


cruel 


miserable 


quiet 



2. In the following words certain letters (in heavy type 
in first column) ought to be silent. The mistake is often 
made of sounding these, or of putting into the words sounds 
that ought not to be "there. Discover in the second column 
letters that ought to be silent, write the words and underline 
the letters. Find also words in which you have heard sounds 
inserted that ought not to be there. Practice speaking all 
the words. 



comma (r) 


down town 


often 


salmon 


drown (d)ed 


herb 


h(a)ow 


athletics 


almond 


persevere 


height (h) 


soften 


umb(e)rella 


ideas 


sword 


suddenly 



10 



Knowing and Using Words 



3. In the following words the consonant sounds (in heavy- 
type) are often given incorrectly or omitted. Discover in 
the second column what consonants might make trouble. 



naturally 


except 


intellect 


Saturday- 


fact 


attract 


government 


diphthong 


perfect 


hundred 


speaking 


subtract 


quarter 


object 


connect 


accept 


arctic 


gentleman 


excursion 


educate 


pumpkin 


length 


English 


depths 


expect 


strength 


anything 


recognize 



4. In the following words the vowels (in heavy type) 
are frequently not given their proper value. Find in the 
second column vowels that are in danger of being slighted. 
Practice writing and speaking all the words correctly. 



mosquito 


potatoes 


fellow 


providence 


regular 


statement 


difference 


audience 


temperance 


reverend 


restaurant 


judgment 


professor 


apologize 


sacrifice 


American 


Christmas 


educate 


justice 


foreigner 


getting 


candidate 


composition 


animal 


office 


representative 



Pronunciation and Enunciation 



11 



solemn 


definition 


sorrow 


innocent 


introduce 


swallow 


argument 


extra 



5. In the following words, vowels (in heavy type) often 
fail to receive their proper sound. Find in the second 
column which vowels these are. Practice writing and speak- 
ing all the words correctly. 



enthusiasm 


tuneful 


almond 


attitude 


include 


avenue 


Italian 


picture 


piano 


juice 


rather 


occupy 


engine 


tube 


genuine 


immediate 


gaping 


coffee 


student 


gratitude 


can't 


tedious 


Tuesday 


deaf 


haunt 


suit 


chaste 


stupid 


psalm 


docile 


pathway 


amateur 


patent 


juvenile 


because 


produce 


sergeant 


figure 


against 


duke 


leisure 


induce 


endure 


tutor 


launch 


glacier 



How many of the words on pages 9 to 11 must 
you add to your " Never Again List"? 



12 



Knowing and Using Words 



7. Supplementary Word Lists for 
Pronunciation 

You will be directed by your teacher as to the use of 
these lists. 

I . 



asphalt 


bouquet 


conjure (of a 


alien 


bow (of a boat) 


magician) 


audacious 


bronchitis 


conjure (to advise) 


awkward 


brooch 


courteous 


aye (meaning yes) 


caldron 


courtier 


aye (meaning al- 


cement (noun) 


data 


ways) 


cement (verb) 


daub 


bade 


chamois 


decorous 


behalf 


chic 


deficit 


ballet 


column 


depot 


desert (verb) 


II 

drought 


granary 


desert (noun) 


extempore 


grievous 


dessert 


eyrie 


grimy 


despicable 


falcon 


heroine 


diamond 


feminine 


homage 


dilate 


fertile 


hypocrisy 


dilemma 


finance 


immediate 


diphthong 


formidable 


impious 


direct 


genuine 


indictment 


docile 


gigantic 
III 


inaugurate 


inquiry 


patriotic 


rational 


international 


prelate 


really 


lava 


premature 


research 


learned (adiective) 


prestige 


resource 



Pronunciation and Enunciation 



13 



mock 


pretence 


respite 


naive 


pretty 


romance 


office 


quay 


route 


ordeal 


quinine 


rout 


pageant 


rapine 

IV 


routine 


scenic 


thyme 


worsted 


says 


toward 


yellow 


sergeant 


usage 


zoology 


squalor 


usurper 


perspiration 


strategy 


valet 


height 


strategic 


valuable 


fuel 


subtle 


vehemently 


heinous 


suggest 


excursion 


tiny 


suite 


version 


far 


therefore 


villain 


again 


bequeath 


yeast 

V 


salve 


drowned 


beginning 


whether 


chimney 


wreaths 


whistle 


for 


pudding 


writing 


what 


reduced 


revolt 


arithmetic 


allow 


rations 


geography 


white 


radish 


student 


house 


medieval 


something 


ground 


lichen 



CHAPTER II 
WORDS CONFUSED AND MISUSED 

8. Words of Similar Sound 

Mispronunciation is by no means the only cause 
that underlies the misspelling of words. Even if you 
speak with perfect correctness, you cannot be sure that 
the correct sound will always guide you to spell cor- 
rectly. Sometimes the sounds of different letters are 
a good deal alike ; for instance, the sound of g in the 
word congest could be represented by j. Sometimes a 
word contains letters that are not sounded at all; 
for instance, Wednesday. In the course of our study 
we shall find ways of answering these questions. 

Sometimes, too, there are two or more words with 
different meanings and different spellings which sound 
alike. Often two such words of similar sound are 
exchanged for each other in the spelling. For exam- 
ple, why is it wrong to say, "The vine clamored over 
the porch"? What word was intended? Write a 
sentence in which clamored is used correctly. 

In order to be sure which of two similar words to 
use, you should be able to define each of them. In 
the course of this study you will often be required to 
make definitions. These definitions must be fittingly 
expressed, and one important fact to remember about 

14 



Words Confused and Misused 



15 



their expression is that a definition must fit the grammat- 
ical character of the word defined. For instance, it is 
wrong to define the word courtesy by saying, " Courtesy 
means to be polite" ; you should say, "Courtesy means 
politeness." 

EXERCISES 

1. Answer the following questions in regard to each word 
in the list of pairs below. 

a. What part of speech is it? 

b. What is its meaning ? (Omit in case of prepositions.) 

c. Make a sentence in which it is correctly used. 



write 


right 


through 


threw 


know 


no 


aloud 


allowed 


hour 


our 


capital 


capitol 


to 


two too 


prophet 


profit 


dying 


dyeing 


current 


currant 


desert 


dessert 


principal 


principle 


their 


there 


seams 


seems 


coarse 


course 


hear 


here 


aisles 


isles 


knight 


night 



2. As you proceed in these lessons, continue to keep your 
" Never Again List " up to date. 

3. Look at the pairs of words in the following list. 

a. Is this list exactly like the one in Exercise 1 ? 

b. Do you see what error, aside from a confusion in 
meaning, might lead one to spell blew when he means blue? 
If each word were pronounced exactly right, would one be 
so likely to confuse its meaning? 

c. Apply the questions in Exercise 1 to the words in this 
list. 



which 


witch 


formally 


formerly 


lose 


loose 


customer 


costumer 


woman 


women 


liable 


libel 



16 



Knowing and Using Words 



where were wear 


angel 


angle 


color 


collar 


advise 


advice 


whether 


weather 


receipt 


recipe 


affect 


effect 


minute 


minuet 


quite 


quiet 


disease 


decease 


eligible 


legible 


allusion 


illusion 


alley 


ally 


proceed 


precede 


mourning 


morning 


purpose 


propose 



4. a. In the following list distinguish between words 
whose misspelling is due only to confusion in meaning, and 
those where pronunciation is also involved. 

b. Apply to the words in this list the questions in 
Exercise 1, page 15. 



council 


counsel 


wholly 


holy holly 


dairy 


diary 


severe 


sever 


prosecute 


persecute 


reel 


real 


complimenl 


} complement 


dose 


does 


decent descent dissent 


idle 


idol 


past 


passed 


rein 


rain reign 


knew 


new 


accept 


except 


stationary 


stationery 


canon 


cannon canyon 


prophecy 


prophesy 


altar 


alter 


choir 


quire 


ascent 


assent 


tear 


tare 


despatch dispatch 


practical 


practicable 


adapt 


adopt 




9. Sentence 


Practice 



Fill each blank in the following sentences with the 
right word, chosen from the list at the end. The 
letters at the ends of sentences refer to pairs of words 
in the list. 

1. I am sure that you will find this room a 

place to rest in (e). 



Words Confused and Misused 17 

2. The thief to whom he was not able to the 

police (g). 

3. The high wind all the clouds away and left the 

sky clear and (J). 

4. The tailor showed the various from which a 

stylish suit of could be made (b, f). 

5. We always have kinds of for breakfast, oat- 
meal and cornflakes (h, d). 

6. This gown and were made by an expert dress- 
maker and (i, b). 

7. Put the vase of on the (a, c). 

8. At night earth puts on her of darkness (c). 

9. The applicant has himself to be for the 

position (I, k). 

10. Have you read the running in this magazine so 

that you can — ; — it with me? (d, n). 

11. The odor of the the doctor recommended for 

my rheumatism me much that I must throw it 

away, even if it is a ful thing to do (p, n, q, i). 

12. The on his way to the ship looked back to where 

the sun on his little cottage (r, I) . 

13. Every of her face could be seen in the moon- 
light (p). 

14. The seed which the farmer will some day be 

(q, a). 

15. He has been appointed sing in the 

(h, o, s). 

16. She has spoiled a of paper trying to write a 

letter (s, k). 

17. The the lawyer gave him was to do a and 

ignoble deed (m, o). 

18. The highest of the nation must decide what to 

do with the who come flocking to our shores (m, r). 

19. Not only can she neatly, but she can cook, 

(9, h). 



18 



Knowing and Using Words 



20. The of July was the day on which the message 

of independence was rung 

a. flower flour 

b. customer costumer 

c. mantel mantle 



d. 


cereal 


serial 




e. 
/• 

g- 
h. 


quite 
clothes 
allude 
two 


quiet 
cloths 
elude 
too 


to 


i. 
3- 


waste 
blew 


waist 
blue 





Dy tnt 

k. 


3 ijioerLy & 
eligible 


en {i). 
legible 


1 


shown 


shone 


m. 


counsel 


council 


n. 


discuss 


disgust 


0. 


base 


bass 


V- 


liniment 


lineament 


3- 


sew so sow 


r. 


emigrant 


immigrant 


s. 


choir 


quire 


t. 


fourth 


forth 



10. Supplementary Word-Lists for 
Confusion in Meaning 



Correcting 



You will be directed by your teacher as to the use 
of these lists. 



palate 


palette 


pour 


pore 


wonder 


wander 


pray 


prey 


born 


borne 


rode 


road 


cord 


chord 


rest 


wrest 


climb 


clime 


red 


read 


discussed 


disgust 


sale 


sail 


made 


maid 


steak 


stake 


mail 


male 


wrap 


rap 


meet 


meat 


earn 


urn 


plum 


plumb 


pale 
II 


pail 


through 


though 


thorough guilt 


gilt 


stare 


stair 


bury 


berry 


week 


weak 


scent 


sent cent 



Words Confused and Misused 



19 



wring 


ring 


awl 


all 


beat 


beet 


main 


mane 


hare 


hair 


lane 


lain 


creak 


creek 


heir 


air 


frieze 


freeze 


aunt 


•ant 


bread 


bred 


fare 


fair 


steel 


steal 


ballot 


ballad 


break 


brake 


buy 


by 


colonel 


kernel 


some 


sum 


been 


bin 


done 


dun 


heard 


herd 


would 


wood 


raise 


rase 


berth 


birth 



III 



IV 



scene 


seen 


dew 


due 


knead 


need 


pare 


pair pear 


lye 


lie 


sole 


soul 


vain 


vane vein 


whole 


hole 


piece 


peace 


read 


reed 


hoarse 


horse 


wrote 


rote 


strait 


straight 


plane 


plain 


bows 


boughs 


stature 


statue 


bridal 


bridle 


ceiling 


sealing 


waist 


waste 


ingenious ingenuous 


eminent 


imminent 


edition 


addition 


canvass 


canvas 


bare 


bear 



CHAPTER III 

THE DERIVATION OF WORDS 

11. Dictionary Practice 

You have now seen that, in order to know a word, 
you must know how to spell and pronounce it and 
must understand its meaning. You have seen that 
faulty spelling is often a by-product, sometimes of 
mispronunciation, sometimes of a confusion of the 
meanings of words. And you have seen that there is 
one reliable place to look for meaning and pronuncia- 
tion — that useful book, the dictionary. Practice in 
the use of the dictionary means closer acquaintance 
with familiar words, and introduction to the spelling, 
meaning, and pronunciation of new ones. 

EXERCISES (FOR PRACTICE IN USE OF THE DICTIONARY) 

1. Find in the dictionary the pronunciation and meaning 
of each of the following words, and use each in a sentence. 
When you have done so, get some one to dictate the words, 
and test your ability to spell them. 

economic inopportune 

economical incongruous 

diagnosis hypocrisy 

environment inveigle 

caldron homage 

20 



The Derivation of Words 21 

compromise mediocre 

concentrate . heinous 

culinary pecuniary 

despicable enervating 

docile egotist 

2. Choose one of the following words and find in the dic- 
tionary all the synonyms given as a means of defining it. 
Look up each of these synonymous words, and add to your 
list all the additional words given in explanation of it. Look 
up in the same way the synonyms for each of these additional 
words. Pursue this process for half an hour, keeping a 
written list of the words. Be sure that you can pronounce, 
define, and spell the words. How many of them are new to 
you? Notice that one word looked up in the dictionary was 
the means of introducing you to a large number of others, 
house answer look 

polite nice walk 

anger give brave 

beautiful interesting work 

say know reply 

12. Words with Stories 

In Section 8 we spoke of some troublesome words 
which are often misspelled, and on whose spelling 
pronunciation and definition throw little light. Can 
the dictionary give further help in such cases than that 
of supplying sound and meaning ? Let us see, by look- 
ing at the paragraph which Webster's New Interna- 
tional Dictionary devotes to the word Wednesday. 

" Wednesday (wenz'da ; in British usage, especially in 
the north, also wed"nz da), n. [Middle English, ivednesdai, 
wodnesdei; Anglo-Saxon, Wodnesdaeg, i.e., Woden's day ; from 
Woden, the highest god of the Teutonic peoples, but identified 



2£ Knowing and Using Words 

with the Roman god Mercury.] The fourth day of the week ; 
the next day after Tuesday." 

Notice the order in which the dictionary offers its 
information ; first the spelling, then the pronunciation, 
next the part of speech, fourth the derivation, and last 
the meaning. There is a word used in the explanation 
of the derivation that may puzzle you — Teutonic. 
See what you can find about that in an unabridged 
dictionary. And if you want to know more about 
Woden, Brewer's " Dictionary of Phrase and Fable" 
will help you. 

Pronunciation and meaning could not suggest that 
we -should put a d in Wednesday ; but when we have 
learned that the day is named after a Norse deity 
called Woden, we are not likely to forget the middle 
letter of his name. Many of our words have originated 
in such ways; and the unabridged dictionary tells 
about these origins, or derivations, as they are called. 
Many a word hard to spell or understand will become 
clear and easy if you once learn its derivation. 

Our language is full of words that have histories which 
few people stop to think about. For instance, who 
would suppose that there was anything worth noticing 
in the derivation of our common little word king? 
Yet Carlyle explains it as being merely an English 
form of the German konig, which comes from the root 
of the verb konnen, to be able. The konig or king is the 
konning or canning man — the man who is able, and 
who therefore rules his fellowmen. 

Again, the metal of which our pennies are made has a 
name with a history. Copper comes from the Greek 



The Derivation of Words 23 

word Kuprios, meaning of Cyprus ; and the connection 
lies in the fact that the island of Cyprus was famous 
long ago for its copper mines. Our common word 
poet comes from the Greek verb poieo, to make; so 
the poet was originally the man who made something, 
and the word has been specially applied to the man 
who makes verses. The term hypocrite, which we 
apply to the person who gains his own ends by pre- 
tending to be something that he is not, used to belong 
to the actor in the Greek theater. The word tribula- 
tion, a longer name for trouble, comes from the Latin 
word tribulum, which meant the flail of the thresher, 
which beat out the wheat from the chaff. So the 
person who suffers tribulation has all the chaff beaten 
out of his character by the threshing hammer of trouble. 
We might go on giving histories of words ; but if 
you are really to find help about the spelling of them 
from learning their history, it will be better for you to 
look them up for yourself. The friendly unabridged 
dictionary will give you much information ; and if 
you have access to a reference library, Brewer's " Dic- 
tionary of Phrase and Fable" will tell you more. 

EXERCISE 

Find out as far as you can the stories or facts that lie back 
of the meanings of the following words : 

cologne lynch alphabet 

copper mackintosh linen 

atlas dollar acrobat 

canary boycott villain 

worsted guillotine sophomore 

tantalize pompadour dandelion 



phaeton 


squirrel 


volcano 


witch 


cereal 


cunning 


babel 


curfew 


lunatic 


pope 



24 Knowing and Using Words 

daisy 

cardinal 

sincere 

hypocrite 

diamond 

Do you think you will ever forget the spelling or meaning 
of the words whose history you have been able to find ? 

13. Other Languages in English Words 

Not only have many of our words stories attached 
to them, but our English language is an interesting 
one because it represents so many others. If you 
have studied the history of England, you will know 
that many different races had a part in making the 
present English nation. Each of the races had a 
language of its own, which contributed something to 
the new language. Celtic and Danish and German 
and French and Latin and Greek — all went into the 
great crucible of popular usage and were fused to- 
gether to make English. So the words we use are 
many of them a patchwork of pieces from all these 
early languages. For instance, the German word for 
man is Mann. The French word for gentleman is 
gentilhomme. But when the French and German races 
were mixing in England to form the new English race, 
they made their word gentleman by taking one piece 
from the French word and one from the German, sub- 
stituting Mann for homme. Again, the word besiege 
was made by a mixture of a French root with a Ger- 
man prefix, and the word guest is an example of the 
insertion of a French silent u into the Old English 
word gest. 



The Derivation of Words 



25 



It is such information as this that the dictionary 
gives under the head of derivation — information that 
you will find most useful in fixing in your mind the 
spelling of words. 

EXERCISE 

Find out from the unabridged dictionary from what lan- 
guage or languages each of the following words was derived. 
What abbreviations in the dictionary tell you the source of 
the word? Make a table of the abbreviations in your dic- 
tionary for the various original languages. From what other 
language did most of the words marked French originally 
come? 



wigwam 


jubilee 


soprano 


lad 


waltz 


mimic 


adieu 


bungalow 


piano 


candy 


postscript 


mosquito 


calico 


yacht 


chess 


tulip ' 


potato 


Sabbath 


snob 


ambassador 


tea 


daisy 


telephone 


crag 


caravan 


skeptic 


cherub 


dairy 


maize 


czar 


physics 


rosary 



14. Supplementary Lists 

(To be used, if desired, for drill in the use of the 
dictionary. Report on pronunciation, meaning, and 
derivation of each word : in short, on all the dictionary 
has to tell about it. Use the words in sentences as 
your teacher may direct.) 

I II 

conservative philanthropist revival identical 

enthusiastic radius vivacious homicide 

mediation unanimous selection eccentric 

suitable locomotive sovereign emaciated 



26 



Knowing and Using Words 



automobile 


retentive 


abandon 


edifice 


arbitration 


obtainable 


remedy 


fragment 


competition 


suicide 


rigid 


notorious 


communication tenacious 


conflagration 


l officiate 


ambassador 


missionary 


circular 


simultaneous 




III 




IV 


crisis 


realize 


calamity 


diminish 


exasperate 


universal 


achieve 


instant 


vocation 


modify 


inevitable 


industrial 


dexterity 


ardor 


extensive 


establishment 


perception 


expand 


depreciate 


humanitarian 


resemble 


revolutionize 


incredible 


ammunition 


vigor 


consider 


magnitude 


belligerent 


mercantile 


distinguish 


conviction 


fundamental 


tremendous 


promiscuous 


profound 


culpable 


stimulate 


excessive 


degree 


superior 




V 




VI 


ultimate 


essential 


dialect 


function 


avert 


civilized 


culprit 


material 


preserve 


barbarous 


populous 


anonymous 


inclination 


vital 


derive 


disclose 


negligence 


incorporate 


deference 


spontaneous 


fallacy 


appeal 


indicate 


malice 


solitude 


element 


habitual 


overt 


design 


elicit 


intellectual 


emit 


primary 


rustic 


flexible 


biography 


essence 


penetrate 


culture 


sincere 


symbol 


miracle 


monarchy 


autocracy 


frantic 


parable 


democracy 


aristocracy 



CHAPTER IV 

WORD-GROWTH AND WORD-BUILDING : ROOTS AND 
PREFIXES 

15. Roots 

The most important part of every word that is 
made up of several elements is called the root. The 
word root as used in this book refers not to the Latin 
or Greek root in a technical sense, but to the essential 
part of the word in English. 

One root may appear in a great many different words 
that mean different things. For example, the root 
due-, from the Latin word duco, I lead, appears in 
induce, and deduce, and conductor, and education, and 
numbers of other words of which you will readily think. 
Very often to know the root from which a word has 
grown will prevent one from spelling it wrong. For 
instance, one of the words most frequently misspelled 
is convenient. Its root is ven-, from the Latin venio, 
I come. Can you think of any other words in which 
the same root appears? Now, if you know that the 
root in all these words is ven-, will you be likely to 
insert the i in convenient after the first e ? That illus- 
trates the way in which a knowledge of derivations 
increases our ability to spell. 

27 



28 



Knowing and Using Words 



EXERCISES 



1. Discover from the dictionary what are 


the roots of the 


following words, and, if possible, the meanir 


Lgs of the roots. 


college 


attract 


oculist 


phonograph 


collection 


peninsula 


pastor 


submarine 


bicycle 


petition 


remittance 


anniversary 


postpone 


science 


liberal 


manufacture 


invert 


immigration 


mental 


error 


report 


paternal 


literary 


circus 


composition 


domestic 


local 


valedictory 


provide 


manual 


audience 


journey 


illiterate 


punctual 


fragile 


neighbor 


eligible 


century 


visible 


Thursday 


legible 


conjunction 


Monday 


auxiliary 


wealth 


mayor 


Saturday 


Friday 



2. Below is a list of some of the roots which occur most 
frequently in English. Write out all the words you can 
growing from each of them, and be ready to tell their mean- 
ings and use them in sentences. 

scrib-, scrip-, from the Latin verb scribo, I write. 

mitt-, miss-, from the Latin verb mitto, I send. 

log-, logy-, from the Greek noun logos, a word. 

nom-, nomy-, from the Greek noun nomos, law. 

graph-, from the Greek verb grapho, I write. 

metr-, from the Greek noun metros, a measure. 

philo-, from the Greek verb phileo, I love. 

chron-, from the Greek noun chronos, time. 

auto-, from the Greek word autos, himself. 

magn-, from the Latin word magnus, great. 

ere-, from the Latin verb credo, I believe. 

fer-, from the Latin verb fero, I carry, bear. 

port-, from the Latin verb porto, I carry. 

f ac-, fact-, feet-, from the Latin verb facio, I make, do. 



Roots and Prefixes 



29 



vid-, vis-, from the Latin verb video, I see. 

reg-, from the Latin verb rego, I rule. 

scio-, scie-, from the Latin verb scio, I know. 

tract-, from the Latin verb traho, I draw. 

pos-, pon-, from the Latin verb pono, I put. 

ced-, cess-, cedd-, from the Latin verb cedo, I go, move. 

scend-, from the Latin verb scando, I climb. 

3. The following words are often misspelled because their 
roots are not known. Find the root of each and its mean- 
ing, by consulting the list of root words with their meanings 
on pages 112 to 118. Think of additional words you can 
make from the same root. 

conscience miracle embarrass 

convenient penitentiary family 

finally library fascinate 

opposite beneficiary feminine 

opportunity apologize gesture 

occasionally repetition hygiene 

prepare versatile language 

prove privilege medicine 

auditorium congested quarter 

separate decide sacrifice 

imagination condition secretary 

sophomore despair shepherd 

laboratory discreet usually 



16. Prefixes and Suffixes 

In looking up the derivations of words in the last 
few lessons, you will have found that the root is often 
a small part of a long word. The other syllables are 
called prefixes and suffixes, according to their position 
in relation to the root. The syllable pre means before, 
and the root fig-, fix- is from the Latin word that means 



30 Knowing and Using Words 

to fasten. So a prefix is a group of letters put or fas- 
tened before a root to alter its meaning. The syllable 
sub means after ; so a suffix is a group of letters fastened 
after a root to alter its meaning. These various parts, 
root, prefix, and suffix, that go to make up a word, 
are called its component parts, from a prefix con mean- 
ing together and a root pon- meaning to put, so that the 
term means parts put together. There is almost no limit 
to the number of changes you can make in a root by 
means of prefixes and suffixes. For instance, the root 
sped- comes from the Latin word which means to 
look at. With a prefix we make respect; by adding a 
suffix we have respectful; another prefix makes the 
word disrespectful; another suffix may make it dis- 
respectfully or disrespectfulness. From the same root, 
by using other prefixes, we may make the words 
inspect, suspect, and prospect; and by using other 
suffixes, spectator, spectacles, and specter. Each prefix 
and each suffix has a peculiar force of its own; thus 
to know the force of a certain prefix will often keep 
you from spelling wrong a word in which that syllable 
occurs. If you know that ex means from and ac means 
to, you will not add the wrong prefix to the root cap-, 
which means take, and write "The boy [wrong] ex- 
cepted the gift." For ex plus cap- means to "take 
from himself, " which is absurd ; while ac plus cap- means 
to "take to himself," the meaning we wish to express. 
Such a definition as " to take to one's self," for the 
verb "to accept," gives what we shall refer to as the 
literal meaning of the word, translating exactly into 
simple words the component parts of the longer word. 
Thus, the definitions you have just read of the words 



Roots and Prefixes 



31 



prefix, suffix, and component are their literal meanings, 
giving the exact force of the parts which are built into 
the words. The literal meaning of the verb transfer is 
carry across; of the noun chronometer is a measure of 
time. You will find that often an easy way to discover 
the meaning of the word is to look at the literal mean- 
ing of its component parts. 

Our next work, then, will be to make a study of the 
most common prefixes and suffixes, learn their mean- 
ings, practice the analyzing of words which contain 
them, and discover the literal meanings of those words. 

There are two kinds of prefixes : those which have 
only one form that never changes, and those which have 
a variety of forms. The first kind present few diffi- 
culties, so we may group them all together. 



EXERCISES 

Below is a list of words containing most of the simple 
prefixes. 

antecedent 

antipathy 

intermediate 



misuse 

transport 

superlative 

hypocrite 

diameter 

apology 

abstract 

circumference 
1. By separating 
make a list of the 
them alphabetically 



perforate 
deposit 
demerit 
postscript 
preface 
remodel 
retract 
proclaim 
separate 
sympathy 
superfine 
the words into their 
prefixes that appear 



unhappy 

withhold 

beside 

ahead 

abolish 

surface 

catalogue 

forgive 

enact 

enforce 

across 
component parts, 
here, and arrange 



32 



Knowing and Using Words 



2. Judging from the meanings of the words, which you 
will look up if necessary, decide what you think is the mean- 
ing of each prefix. Some prefixes have more than one mean- 
ing. When you have so decided, compare your list of 
meanings with Table I on pages 105-107. 

3. Choose one of these prefixes, and make a list of all the 
words you can think of beginning with it. Be sure that you 
can spell every word on your list. 

4. Study the words in the following list, noticing how 
easy it is to confuse one prefix with another. Frequent 
mistakes arise from the use of dis instead of de, and from the 
confusing of per with pre and pro, and of ante with anti. 



de-scribe 

de-stroy 

de-spise 

de-scent (cf. dissent) 

de-cease (cf. disease) 
anticipate 
antipathy 
antislavery 
antiseptic 
antidote 
anticlimax 



per-spiration 
per-secute (cf. prosecute) 
pur-sue (not formed with per) 
pre-scription 
pro-ceed (cf. precede) 
antetype 
antedate 

antemeridian (a.m.) 
antechamber 
antecedent 
antepenult 

5. The prefixes for and fore are interesting because they 
are so much alike. For indicates either negation or thorough- 
ness ; fore means before. Study the groups of words below 
which illustrate this. 



but 



forgive 


forecast 


forefinger 


forget 


foretell 


foretaste 


forbid 


foresee 


foremost 


forlorn 


foreshadow 


forethought 


forsake 


forerunner 


forehead 


forbear 


forefather 


foreman 



Roots and Prefixes 



33 



6. A few remaining prefixes are deserving of attention. 
Most of those we have studied were originally Latin or Greek 
prepositions ; but a few words which in English are used as 
prefixes were adverbs or adjectives in Latin or Greek. Study 
the spelling of the following groups. 

mono, meaning one bene, meaning well male, meaning ill 



monogram 

monologue 

monotonous 

monarchy 

monoplane 



benefit malice 

benefactor malefactor 

benevolent malevolent 

beneficent malign 

benediction malediction 

equi, meaning equal 
equilateral 
equidistant 
equivalent 
equipoise 
equinox 

7. Do not forget your " Never Again List." Are there 
any words on it misspelled because you used a wrong prefix ? 



17. Supplementary Lists of Words with Simple 

Prefixes 

You may use these lists, under your teacher's direc- 
tion, for practice in analysis of words and use of words 
in sentences. 

I. 



abbreviate 


arouse 


defend 


circumscribe 


abnormal 


aboard 


derision 


circumvent 


abuse 


behind 


dejected 


circumstance 


absent 


before 


decline 


misdeed 


abhor 


bestir 


demand 


misfortune 


absolute 


believe 


describe 


mislead 



34 



Knowing and Using Words 



apart 


deform 


destroy 


mistake 


ashore 


decrease 


despise 


mistrust 


alone 


debate 


descend 


misspell 


abound 


defect 


decease 


mishap 


abroad 


deliberate 


nonsense 


forehead 


along 


decide 


circumnavigate 


foresee 


antidote 


interrogative 


II 

retreat 


resign 


anticipate 


interpose 


remember 


reply 


antisuffrage 


interfere 


reconcile 


reject 


antiseptic 


interview 


recommend 


revise 


antedate 


interrupt 


recollect 


recess 


anteroom 


intermission 


reconstruct 


request 


antediluvian 


intercourse 


refer 


revert 


interval 


intercede 


refrain 


retire 


interlude 


interjection 


refuse 


remain 


international 


repeal 


review 
III 


regard 


permission 


professor 


prepaid 


transfer 


persevere 


pronoun 


premature 


transact 


peruse 


pronounce 


preliminary 


transpose 


permanent 


profit 


postpone 


transcribe 


provide 


prophet 


posterity 


transplant 


protect 


president 


superintend 


translate 


program 


prejudice 


superfluous 


transmission 


product 


preparation 


superstition 


surprise 


promote 


prevent 


secede 


surpass 


promise 


preposition 


secret 


surmount 



CHAPTER V 

WORD-GROWTH AND WORD-BUILDING: EUPHONIC 

CHANGES 

18. Euphonic Changes; ad 

The most frequent spelling errors that arise in 
derivative words, as we call words made in this way by 
a putting together of various pieces, are in the use of 
the eight prefixes that remain to be studied. The first 
of them is ad, usually meaning at or to. Now, if we 
put ad before the root mir-, meaning to wonder,we have 
no difficulty in saying the resulting word admire, for 
d and m can easily be pronounced together. But 
when we try to put ad before the root tend, our tongues 
refuse to say adtend, and the d turns into a t. The 
same thing happens to the d of ad before the letters 
b, c, g, p, s, I, n, f, and r ; in each case the d becomes the 
double of the letter that follows it. Such a change as 
this is made, we say, for the sake of euphony ; that is, 
to make the word sound (phoneo) well (eu). These 
changes happened so continually while the language 
was in the making that it is not always easy to see 
what were the original parts of the word. 

Do not try to remember lists of letters like those 
given above. If you understand the reason for the 
change, you are not likely to misspell the words. 

35 



36 



Knowing and Using Words 



Now what happens when the poor speller uses the 
word attend, for instance ? He does not know that the 
root began with a t and that the prefix ended with a d. 
He does not know that the impossible combination dt 
has been changed to a double t; so he tries to make 
one t do the work of both d and t. Do you see how a 
very little knowledge of word-building can keep you 
from writing atend for attend ? 

EXERCISE 

Combine the prefix ad with the following roots, making 
any necessary euphonic changes. Be sure that you can use 
each word in a sentence. 



-dress 


-feet 


-cident 


-cept 


-lude 


-prehend 


-preciate 


-nounce 


-petite 


-tach 


-pear 


-rive 


-here 


-sent 


-paratus 


-scent 


-scend 


-quire 


-join 


-point 


-tract 


-mit 


-complish 


-proach 


-count 


-vertise 


-cuse 


-jective 


-flict 


-plication 


-vise 


-grieve 


-tempt 


-sert 


-company 


-commodate 


-sist 


-prove 


-tend 



19. Euphonic Changes; dis and mis 

The prefix dis, usually meaning apart or not, is some- 
times the cause of spelling errors, even when its last 
letter is unchanged. The poor speller puts it before 
the word satisfy, and forgetting that the prefix ends in 
one s and the root begins with another s, he tries to make 



Euphonic Changes 



37 



one s do duty for both. Having been corrected for that 
error, he tries to use the prefix before the word appear, 
and remembering that when he used dis before he had 
to write a double s, he duly puts two s's in disappear. 
Now if you know that the prefix ends in one s and the 
root begins with a vowel, you cannot make such a 
mistake. The same rule holds good for the prefix mis; 
mis and dis retain the s before an s in the root, and do 
not double it before a vowel. Dis undergoes a euphonic 
change to dif before the letter /, while in some cases 
it is shortened to di. 



EXERCISES 

1. Combine the prefix dis with the following roots, making 
any euphonic changes necessary. 

2. In which of the words does the prefix have the meaning 
apart or from? In which does it have a negative force? 
Discover the literal meaning of each word, and use it in a 
sentence. 



-play 

-fuse 

-able 

-aster 

-perse 

-trust 

-sturb 

-stance 

-vide 

-vorce 

-missal 



3. Which words contain a dc 


of prefix and root ? 


What is the 


letter? 




-connect 


-ease 


-vert 


-courage 


-fident 


-creet 


-sipate 


-cuss 


-charge 


-tinct 


-sect 


-gress 


-cover 


-ficult 


-agree 


-approve 


-appoint 


-appear 


-sent 


-gest 


-solve 


-ferent 



38 Knowing and Using Words 

4, Combine the prefix mis with the following roots, 
-spell -state -sent -say -spoke 

20. Euphonic Changes; ex and in 

The prefix e or ex, usually meaning out of or from, 
makes no difficulty except before the letter /. It 
then becomes ef, and we must be careful to keep both 
the/ of the prefix and the/ of the root. 

The prefix in, usually meaning either in, into, or 
not, has its n changed to m before the letter p ; the 
n is changed to match the first letter of the root before 
I, m, and r, so that we have here another case of a 
double letter at a junction. 

EXERCISES 

1. Combine ex or in or, if possible, both, with each of 
the following roots, making all necessary euphonic changes. 
As before, define and use all the words. 

2. In which of the words which you have made with the 
prefix in does that syllable have the force of in or into f In 
which does it have the force of notf 

3. As before, select and study words with double letters. 



-cept 


-perience 


-face 


-aggerate 


-finite 


-feet 


-haust 


-fluence 


-fort 


-press 


-habit 


-port 


-elude 


-hibit 


-loquent 


-terior 


-nocent 


-lapse 


-eel 


-telligent 


-mune 


-claim 


-migrant 


-reverent 


-plain 


-rational 


-literate 


-sist 


-regular 


-diet 


-lect 


-ject 


-moral 



Euphonic Changes 39 



-legible 


-lumine 


-lustrate 


-plore 


-pel 


-spect 


-pose 


-rupt 


-mediate 


-possible 


-mortal 


-patient 



21. Euphonic Changes; com and sub 

The prefix com, from the Latin cum, meaning with 
or together, appears in several forms. 

1. Consult the dictionary to find three words in 
which com precedes each of the letters, b, m, and p. 
Why is the prefix not changed ? 

2. What change would you expect before I and r? 
Why? 

3. What change would you expect before n? 

4. Find a word in which com appears before each of 
five other consonants. 

The prefix sub, meaning under or after, has its final 
b changed to match the first letter of the root before 
c > fi 9) V) arj d r. This is true also of the prefix ob, 
meaning against or in front of. 

EXERCISE 

1. Combine com, sub, or ob, or, if possible, all three, with 
each of the following roots, making all necessary euphonic 
changes. 

2. Define all the words, and study especially the spelling 
of those with double letters at the junction of prefix and root. 

-press -nect -plex -struct 

-ceed -mand -fess -cur 

-cede -here -stant -ject 

-fer -rupt -demn -ponent 

-gest -lide -spiracy -posite 



40 



Knowing and Using Words 



-port 


-respond 


-tinent 


-ordinate 


-mence 


-lect 


-fix 


-fice 


-mit 


-mercial 


-pose 


-ply 


-elude 


-merge 


-urb 


-modity 


-pare 


-pete 


-scribe 


-fuse 


-tract 


-bine 


-spect 


-pend 



Notice that there is another suffix, sur, a form of super, 
meaning over, which undergoes no euphonic change, but 
which may easily be mistaken for a form of sub and be made 
to follow the rule for euphonic changes of sub. Thus the 
word surprise is often misspelled by people who write it as if 
it were a combination of sub and prise. Of course in that 
case the b would change to p, and the word would have 
two p's. Study the words in the following list, which are 
all made with the simple prefix sur. 

surprise surrender 

surmise surplus 

surfeit survive 

surmount surround 

surpass survey 



22. Review 
In each word in the following list 
from the rest of the word, noticing 
euphonic changes. 



separate the prefix 
and explaining all 



supersede 


commemorate 


summon 


disrespect 


recollect 


suffuse 


misunderstand 


accomplish 


elaborate 


educate 


assault 


ellipse 


disappear 


aggregate 


supply 


define 


commotion 


diffuse 


benevolent 


incorrect 


irresponsible 


extravagant 


immanent 


impression 


oblige 


opportunity 


offense 



CHAPTER VI 

WORD-GROWTH AND WORD-BUILDING: SUFFIXES 

23. Suffixes 

Suffixes do not change the meaning of a word so 
often as they change it from one part of speech to an- 
other. You are familiar with the suffix -ly, the sign 
of the adverb ; with the suffix -ing, which forms the 
present participle; and with -er and -est, the signs of 
the comparative and superlative degrees. The follow- 
ing list of words contains most of the common suffixes, 
which are indicated by heavy type. Make a list of 
them, by detaching them from the roots, and try to 
determine what part of speech each indicates. Com- 
pare your list, when made, with Table III on pages 
109-111. 



confident 


notify 


audience 


occasionally 


organist 


independent 


similar 


goddess 


ceremony 


probable 


religious 


thoughtful 


municipal 


practical 


golden 


elevator 


courteous 


tiresome 


abundance 


appearance 


opinion 


grammar 


tendency 


literature 


advertise 


eminence 


hardship 


business 


physician 
41 


robbery 



42 



Knowing and Using Words 



verdant 


occupancy 


conqueror 


livelihood 


atheism 


gratitude 


westward 


straighten 


development 



24. Suffixes (continued) 



EXERCISES 



Follow directions given for changing the following words 
into other words by means of adding suffixes. 

1. From the following words make nouns, by adding 
noun suffixes : 



judge 


suggest 


patriot 


cruel 


vary 


weary 


poet 


marry 


appoint 


real 


just 


attach 


lively 


refuse 


local 


assist 


lovely 


solemn 


critic 


attend 


busy 


penitent 


govern 


account 


court 


art 


fellow 


compare 


sincere 


press 


argue 


compete 


separate 


prophet 


arrive 


opportune 


. From the following words 


i make adjectives, by ad 


ctive suffixes 








court 


snob 


defect 


drama 


practice 


science 


oppose 


mystery 


artifice 


sympathy 


malice 


attend 


use 


suburb 


fortune 


account 


weary 


tune 


critic 


compare 


romance 


finance 


grief 


compete 



3. From the following words make verbs, by adding verb 
suffixes : 

soft critic apology 

prophet alien horror 

sympathy type real 



Suffixes 



43 



moral very vaccine 

strength emphasis fort 

25. Changes in Roots 

Sometimes the root of a word to which a suffix is 
added undergoes a change. A vowel may be altered 
or dropped out, for the sake of euphony or because 
the accent in the word moves. Sometimes, too, con- 
sonants must make euphonic changes. Notice the 
changes that take place in the words on the list below. 

explain + ation = explanation receive + tion = reception 



hinder + ance = hindrance 
fire+y = fiery 
repeat + ition = repetition 
vain + ity = vanity 
appear + ent = apparent 



maintain + ance = maintenance 
proceed +sion = procession 
prove + able = probable 
brief + ity = brevity 
school + ar = scholar 



EXERCISE 

In the following words root changes occur when suffixes 
are added. Add to each the suffix indicated and make such 
root change as is needed. 



exclaim + ation 
lighten + ing 
remember + ance 
describe + tion 
four + ty 
choose + en 
generous + ity 
abound + ance 
despair + ate 
discreet + tion 
curious + ity 



merchant + ile 
destroy + tion 
redeem + tion 
pronounce + tion 
sober + iety 
brass + en 
incorrect + ible 
obey + ience 
twelve + th 
resolve + tion 
grain + ary 



44 Knowing and Using Words 

26. Parts of Speech made by Suffixes 
exercise 

See how many words you can make from each of the 
following roots by adding different suffixes. What parts of 
speech can you make from each root? You may add more 
than one suffix at a time. Write your list. 

attract illustrate 

audi- litera- 

descend liber- (free) 

vis- proceed 

art regul- 

critic secret 

colleg- use 

respond attent- 

idol habit 

Mention any changes either of vowel or consonant that 
you have had to make in adding suffixes to the roots. 

27. The Suffix Beginning with a Vowel 

Certain rules must be remembered for the use of 
suffixes. For instance, the sign of the present parti- 
ciple, ing, often makes trouble when it is added to a 
verb. You write about the dining-room with two n's, 
or you make a beginning with one n. Let us see what 
caused these errors. 

In the word din the i is short; a single vowel is 
always short when it stands at the end of a word 
before a single consonant. We may make this vowel 
long by adding at the end of the word an e, called " final 
silent e " because it is not sounded. But if we are going 
to use the suffix ing after the word, it serves the pur- 



Suffixes 45 

pose of lengthening the i just as well as the silent e 
does ; we do not need both, so we drop the e and write 
dining. Now if we add ing to the word begin we shall 
lengthen its i ; this we do not wish to do, so we double 
the n at the end of the word. This serves to keep the 
i short, for a vowel before two consonants is always 
short. Such a doubling as this takes place whenever 
we have a monosyllable (word of one syllable) ending 
in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel ; 
e.g., pin, pinning; run, running. But, you say, 
begin has two syllables. On which one does the accent 
fall? Every polysyllable (word of tw^o or more syl- 
lables) that ends in one vowel and one consonant and is 
accented on the last syllable, must have its final letter 
doubled before ing. A word like cover, where the 
accent falls on another syllable than the last, does not 
double the final letter. This rule applies to the use 
not only of ing, but also of every suffix beginning with a 
vowel. 

Here is the rule, in easy form to be memorized : 
When a suffix beginning with a vowel is added after 
the final consonant of a monosyllable, or of a poly- 
syllable accented on the last syllable, the final consonant 
is doubled, if it is a single consonant and is preceded 
by a single vowel. Polysyllables ending in I may 
double the I or not. 

EXERCISE 

Change the following words by the addition to each of 
as many suffixes beginning with vowels as the sense will 
allow. Explain in each case what is the effect upon the 
word of the added suffix, in spelling and in meaning. 



46 



Knowing and Using Words 



(Model for recitation : Control is a polysyllable, ending in 
a single consonant -I- preceded by a single vowel -a-, and 
accented on the last syllable. In order to add the suffix ing, 
which will make the present participle of the verb, the final 
consonant Z is doubled.) 



forget 


permit 


marvel 


benefit 


beg 


suffer 


danger 


summon 


blot 


rebel 


begin 


rim 


stir 


occur 


commit 


wool (oo = single vowel) 


seem 


offer 


win 


equal 


wrap 


develop 


shop 


compel 


plan 


prefer 


hop 


confer 


rid 


acquit 


broaden 


strip 


rob 


omit 


conquer 


scar 


regret 


model 


bag (add age) 


profit 



28. Final Silent e 

We have not yet fully discussed why it is wrong to 
put two n's in dining-room. That is the room where we 
dine, with a long i. There is, of course, such a word as 
din, with a short i. How shall we indicate the differ- 
ence in sound of the two present participles ? When 
we add ing to dine, the e is no longer necessary to 
keep the i long, so we drop it ; but we must not double 
the n, for that would immediately shorten the i. You 
don't want to overwork the good rule you have just 
learned by trying to apply it to words ending in a 
silent e. The rule for such words is as follows : Final 
silent e is kept before a suffix beginning with a consonant 
(e.g., changeful) ; and is dropped before a suffix beginning 
with a vowel (e.g., changing). 

This rule is true with a few exceptions. 



Suffixes 47 

1. When the letter before silent 6 is a soft c or g 
(c like s and g like j), the e must be retained before a 
or o in the suffix (e. g., changeable). This is because c 
and gr before a and o are always sounded hard, and if we 
want them to stay soft we must not let them get into 
that combination. 

2. Words in which silent e is preceded by i drop e and 
change the i to y, to avoid an unpronounceable double 
i. (tie + ing = tying) 

3. A few words end in silent e after a vowel, and in 
such cases the e is dropped even before a suffix beginning 
with a consonant, (true + ly = truly) 

4. Silent e after d# is dropped even before a conso- 
nant in such words as judgment and acknowledgment. 
Other exceptional cases are wisdom and wholly. 

5. When two words are very nearly alike, for instance, 
sing and singe ; die and dye, the rule about final silent 
e cannot be kept. If e dropped when ing was added 
to singe, we could not tell which word was meant by 
the participle singing ; likewise dye + ing, by the rule, 
would be dying, exactly the same as the participle 
of die. So singe and dye keep the e before ing. 

6. In words ending in oe or ee, such as hoeing, shoeing, 
and agreeable, final silent e is kept before a vowel, be- 
cause without it two vowels would come together that 
would form a diphthong and reduce the words to a 
single syllable. Another exception is mileage. 



48 



Knowing and Using Words 



EXERCISE 

1. Change the following words by the addition of suffixes 
beginning with both vowels and consonants. Explain in 
each case why the final e is or is not dropped. 



hope (cf. hop + ing) 


courage 


dine 


shine 


love (add able) 


approve 


declare 


exercise 


notice (add able) 


desire 


place 


peace 


receive 


persevere 


lose 


due 


loose 


criticize 


die (cf . dye + ing) 


value 


plane (cf. plan + ing) 


outrage 


write 


choose 


close . 


persuade 


rescue 


arrange (add ing and ment) 


trouble 


safe (add ty) 


advantage 


believe 


charge (add ing and able) 


measure 


lie 


definite 


argue (add ment) 


come 


bite 


blame (add able) 


make 


service (add able) 


have 


come 


accuse 


advertise 


amuse (add ment and ing) 


complete 


arrive (add al) 


damage 


mere 


extreme (add ist and ly) 


scare (cf. scar + ed) 


stripe (cf. strip + ed) 


sense 


sincere 


awe 


refuse 



Suffixes 49 

29. Final y 

Final e drops ; what does final y do ? It does not 
drop before a suffix, but instead, if it is preceded by a 
consonant, it changes to i. For example, busy + ness 
= business. Of course, in such a word as joy, where a 
vowel precedes y, no change occurs ; joy + Jul = joyful. 
Several exceptional cases, however, must be noticed. 

1. If the suffix begins with i it is clear the rule must 
be set aside ; for to follow it would produce a double 
i, which is unpronounceable. Study + ing = not 
studiing, but studying. Sometimes people follow the 
rule in such words so far as to drop the y, putting no i 
in its place. Guard against this common mistake. 

2. Y is often retained before the suffixes hood and 
ship; babyhood, ladyship. It is also kept sometimes 
when ly is added to a one-syllable adjective ; shyly. 

3. When the syllable ious follows a t, the t has the 
sound of sh. Therefore, in order to secure the correct 
enunciation of some words that end in ty, the y is 
changed to e rather than to i. Pity + ous = piteous; 
beauty + ous = beauteous. 

EXERCISE 

To the words in the following list add suffixes, explaining 
in each case what changes you make and stating what part 
of speech each suffix makes of the word. 

copy lazy 

bury (add ing and al) vary 

carry (add ing and age) beauty (add ful and ous) 

family (add ar) accompany (add ment) 

happy friendly 



50 Knowing and Using Words 



hurry (add er and ing) 


fancy (add ful and ing) 


ordinary 


reply 


rely 


ready 


pity (add ful and able) 


jolly 


marry (add ing and age) 


holy 


hasty 


lonely 


lovely 


worry 


heavy 


gay 



30. Double l in Derivative Words 

Of what two parts is the word almost composed? 
What has happened to the usual spelling of the first 
part? That is what always happens when the word 
all is one component in a derivative word. Now look 
at the word useful. How do you suppose the last 
syllable was originally spelled ? Think of other words 
that are made with that suffix : beautiful, full of beauty ; 
faithful, full of faith. When a visitor comes to your 
home you say that he is welcome; in other words, it is 
well that he has come. We are safe, then, in reaching 
the conclusion that when a syllable ending in 11 is 
used as one of the component parts of a word, one 
of the Vs drops. When the 11 stands at the end of 
the main or root part of the word, you may keep 
both Z's or drop one, though the preference is given to 
keeping them. Thus, fulfill is preferred over fulfil, 
though both are correct. 

EXERCISES 

1. Use all in combination with the following syllables. 

ways . together with so 

ready though mighty 



Suffixes 51 

Notice: The expression all right consists of two words, 
not one, and the first of the two needs both its Vs. 

2. -Use full in combination with the following words. 
skill fancy (What other rule ?) 
cheer respect 

awe (What other rule?) plenty 

fear health 

3. Add the following parts together : 

un + till ell + bow well + fare 

31. Double Letters at Junction Points 

There is one more possible combination in which the 
addition of either a prefix or a suffix may make us 
trouble. That is when the prefix ends in the same 
letter with which the root begins, or when the root ends 
in the same letter with which the suffix begins ; for 
example, un-nerve, mean-ness. Our temptation, as 
we have seen in the lessons on prefixes, is to drop out 
one of the two matched letters. But as one belongs 
to the root and the other to the prefix or suffix, that is 
just what we must not do. Both n's in the words 
above remain. 

EXERCISES 

1. Use the prefix dis with each of the following : 
section semble sipate satisfy 
sension solve similar suade 

2. Use the prefix mis with each of the following : 
spell sent 

state step 

3. Use the suffix ness with each of the following : 
plain even open drunken 
lean stubborn thin sullen 



52 



Knowing and Using Words 



4. Use the suffix ly with each of the following : 



real 


equal 


awful 


special 


original 


loyal 


formal 


wool 


occasional 


partial 


accidental 


final 


cruel 


general 


dutiful 


natural 


legal 


mutual 


spiritual 





32. Review of Rules for Suffixes 

1. Explain why the final letter of the root in each of 
these words is or is not doubled. 



rebellion 


is 


preference 


offering 


forgotten 


marvelous 


occurrence 


goddess 




deference 


difference 


soften 




excellence 


druggist 


sweeten 




planned 


conference 


2. Add to the words below the suffixes indicated at the 


heads of the columns. 






Ing 


Ed 


Able, Iblb 


Ment 


forfeit 


equip 


sale 


acknowledge 


benefit 


commit 


sense 


state 


advise 


marry 


love 


merry 


limit 


delay 


change 


judge 


panel 


dispel 


peace 


argue 


pursue 


control 


marriage 




prefer 


worship 






proffer 








shoe 




Ful 


Ly 


interfere 




awe 


due 


try 




beauty 


whole 


marry 




pity 


state 






hope 


true 






duty 


happy 






fancy 





Suffixes 



53 



3. Explain how the rules in Sections 27-31 are illustrated 



in the following words. 

committed 

notable 

fulfillment 

supposing 

toeing 

noticeable 

untying 

shining 

cleanliness 



desirable 

developing 

vengeance 

grievous 

reddened 

criticizing 

persevering 

liveliness 

albeit 



manageable 

exceptionally 

partially 

entirely 

argument 

serviceable 

safely 

friendliness 

healthful 



4. Explain how each of the words in the following list 
has been built by the use of prefixes and suffixes. Explain 
also all euphonic changes that have taken place in build- 
ing the words. State the literal meaning of each word, if 
possible. 

(Models for recitation : Disappointment. This word is 
built up around the root punct-, meaning a point. The 
syllable ad is prefixed, d changing to p before p, the suffix 
ment makes the verb appoint into a noun, the prefix dis puts 
a negative to the noun appointment. 

Conscientiously. This word is built up around the root 
scio, to know. The suffix ence gives the noun science. Add- 
ing the prefix com, in which m changes to n before s, we have 
conscience. To add the suffix ious, we must drop final silent 
e and change c to t. To the adjective so formed, ly is added 
to make an adverb.) 



institution 

inspiration 

impartially 

immediately 

illuminate 

extravagant 



accompaniment 

accuracy 

accustomed 

acknowledgment 

recommendation 

resurrection 



affectionate 

disagreeable 

apparently 

considerable 

desperate 

description 



demonstration 

influential 

unconsciously 

inconstancy 

continually 

inconveniently 



54 



Knowing and Using Words 



experimental unsympathetic definition discourtesy 
excellence irresponsible irresistible involuntarily 

disapproval disappearance indifference independence 

33. Danger Points in Spelling 

You have surely discovered by this time that in 
every word liable to misspelling there is one special 
danger point. 

EXERCISE 

1. In each of the words in the following list discover the 
danger point. Explain how you can avoid the danger. 



principal 


argument 


cruel 


attract 


business 


successful 


compliment 


dyeing 


benefit 


sincerely 


laboratory 


accept 


separate 


envious 


there 


quiet 


awful 


occasionally 


writing 


beginning 


describe 


library 


persuade 


address 


surprise 


eligible 


appearance 


courageous 


approve 


correspond 


courteous 


studying 


misspell 


disappoint 


equally 


shining 



2. In each word on your " Never Again List " discover 
the danger point, and explain how you can avoid the danger. 

3. The following list bears the name of " One Hundred 
Spelling Demons/' 1 because it consists of the words ascertained 
by actual count of experts to be the oftenest misspelled of all 
the words in the English language. Study it and answer the 
following questions : 

a. Which of these words are on your " Never Again 
List?" 

b. Which of these words do you think are misspelled 
simply because of carelessness ? 

1 From "Concrete Investigation of the Material of English Spell- 
ing", published by the University of South Dakota. 



Suffixes 



55 



c. In which of these words do you think a knowledge of 
derivation and structure would be helpful ? 

d. Discover the danger point in each of these words. 



One Hundred Spelling Demons of the 


English Languc 


which 


can't 


guess 


they 


their 


sure 


says 


half 


there 


loose 


having 


break 


separate 


lose 


just 


buy 


don't 


Wednesday 


doctor 


again 


meant 


country 


whether 


very 


business 


February 


believe 


none 


many 


know 


knew 


week 


friend 


could 


laid 


often 


some 


seems 


tear 


whole 


been 


Tuesday 


choose 


won't 


since 


wear 


tired 


cough 


used 


answer 


grammar 


piece 


always 


two 


minute 


raise 


where 


too 


any 


ache 


women 


ready 


much 


read 


done 


forty 


beginning 


said 


hear 


hour 


blue 


hoarse 


here 


trouble 


though 


shoes 


write 


among 


coming 


to-night 


writing 


busy 


early 


wrote 


heard 


built 


instead 


enough 


does 


color 


easy 


truly 


once 


making 


through 


sugar 


would 


dear 


every 


straight 



CHAPTER VII 



WORD-BUILDING AND WORD-ANALYSIS 



34. Family Groups 



You must have discovered long ago that most of 
the words which we call " derivatives " — words which 
are derived or made from smaller words or roots — 
can be grouped in families. The root is the family 
name, and the prefixes and suffixes make the identities 
of the individuals in the family, just as Mary or Charles 
or Kate or Henry gives you your individual tag. Thus, 
in the family whose common name is the syllable fin-, 
from the Latin finis, end, there are the following 
members : define, definite, definition, definitive, definite- 
ness, definitely, indefinite, indefinable, finite, infinite, 
infinitive, confine, confinement, finally, etc. — a large 
family. Study the family groups below. What part 
of speech is each word ? 



pend 


monstr- 


-scend 


depend 


demonstrate 


descend 


dependent 


demonstrative 


descendant 


independent 


demonstration 


ascend 


dependence 


monster 


ascendant 


independence 


monstrous 


ascension 


dependency 


monstrosity 


condescension 


impend 




condescendingly 



56 





Wor d-B uilding 


<- 


point 


prove 


tend 


appoint 


approve 


intend 


appointment 


approval 


intention 


disappoint 


disapprove 


contend 


disappointment 


disapproval 


contention 




approbation 


tendency 


scribe 


disapprobation 


extend 


describe 


probate 


extensive 


description 


probably 




inscribe 


problem 


ceed- 


inscription 


probability 


proceed 


conscribe 


improbability 


procession 


conscription 


reprobate 


procedure 


subscribe 


reprobation 


precede 


subscription 


improve 


concede 


scripture 


improvement 


concession 




reprove 


succeed 


nomen 




success 


nominal 


machine 


successful 


denominator 


machinist 


unsuccessful 


pronominal 


mechanic 


succession 


nominate 


mechanical 


successive 


nomination 


mechanism 


process 



57 



EXERCISE 



Make as large families of words 


as you can from the fol 


lowing roots : 




memo- 


die-, dict- 


imag- 


spect- 


. intell- 


-fer- 


par- 


fid- 


sci- 


fic-, feet- 


cept- 


port- 



58 



Knowing and Using Words 



phys- 

leg- 

fin- 



press- 
-clude 
-fess 



35. Separation into Component Parts, or Word- 
analysis 



EXERCISES 

1. Separate the following words into their component 
parts, explaining all changes that have taken place in the 
building of them. Make your work definite and graphic 
by arranging the parts of each word in a table like the 
model below. 



Word 


Prefix 


Stem 


Suffix 


Literal 


Meaning 


Meaning 


Meaning 


Meaning 


proceed 


pro — before 


ceed — go 





to go before 


certify 


— 


cert — sure 


ify — to 
make 


to make cer- 
tain 


reception 


re — back 


cept — take 


tion — act of 


act of taking 
back 


announce 


innocent 


apparent 


comparable 


congregatioi 


l infinite 


impractical 


inflexible 


audible 


temptation 


irrepressible 


subtraction 


attentive 


incorrigible 


conjunction 


dissimilarity 


intercede 


transportation 


unfamiliar 


certificate 


ornament 


progressive 


interventior 


l invisible 


innumerable 


readjustmei 


it inactivity 






intolerable 







2. Use these words in sentences as your teacher directs. 



Word-Building 59 

36. Word-Interpretation ; Meanings Added by 
Prefixes and Suffixes 

exercises 

1 . Find in the dictionary ten words, new to you, in whose 
structure you notice any of the prefixes studied. Arrange 
them in a table as in Section 35. Become familiar with 
their meanings, explain any euphonic changes you observe, 
and be able to tell how the prefix in each helps to make it 
mean what it does. For instance, in the word accept, which is 
built on the root capere, to take, the prefix ad gives the force 
of to — to take to one's self. That adds to the meaning of 
the word — you do not merely take a present, you accept it. 

2. Follow the same directions with ten words showing 
suffixes in their structure, stating here what part of speech 
the suffix makes from the root. 

37. Word-Interpretation 
exercise 

Look at the words in Sections 3-6. From among them 
choose ten that contain roots that have become familiar to 
you. Explain about each what changes have occurred in the 
building, and how prefix and suffix have altered the meaning. 
Arrange your work in a table, as in Section 35. 

38. Word-Interpretation; Literal Meaning and 
Current Use 

It is interesting to see how the derivations of these 
built-up words are connected with the meanings that 
they convey in their everyday use. For instance, we 
all know exactly what an advertisement is. Now pick 
the words to pieces — ad, to ; verto, to turn ; ise, verb 



60 



Knowing and Using Words 



suffix meaning to make ; ment, noun suffix meaning that 
which. So an advertisement is that which makes some- 
one turn to look at the goods you have for sale — and if 
it is a successful advertisement, such should be its 
effect. 

EXERCISE 

Divide the following words into their component parts, 
writing out such a table as in Section 35. Try to explain the 
connection between literal meaning and current use. They 
are all words which you often meet in your study of English. 



composition 

coherence 

conjunction 

preposition 

infinitive 

subordinate 

vocabulary 



exposition 

pronoun 

nominative 

intransitive 

complement 

description 

dictionary 



conjugation 

demonstrative 

appositive 

imperative 

abbreviation 

definition 

pronunciation 



39. Word-Building; Combining Separated Parts 

exercise 

Below are a group of prefixes, a group of roots, and a 
group of suffixes. Put as many of them as you can together 
in as many ways as y r ou can, writing out your results. You 
can find the various forms of each root as used in English by 
consulting Table IV, pages 112-118. 



Prefixes 


Roots 


Sttfpixe 


ab 


amo 


ance 


anti 


capio 


cle 


circum 


cedo 


ent 


trans 


credo 


ism 


ex 


duco 


ion 


dis 


dico 


ite 



Wor d-B uilding 



61 



Prefixes 


Roots 


Suffixes 


in 


facio 


ment 


mis 


finis 


ness 


pro 


lego 


or, er 


pre 


mando 


ary, ery 


per 


mitto 


able 


sub 


rego 


fill 


un 


sto 


ive 




tango 


ous 




teneo 


iy 




venio 


fy 




verto 


ate 




video 





40. Word Analysis 

exercises 

1. Look at the supplementary lists in Section 7. Select 
all the words that seem to you to be derivatives. Of these 
choose ten whose structure interests you, divide them into 
their component parts, and show how they have been built 
up from the roots. You may have to use the dictionary. 
Arrange your work in tabular form as in Section 35. 

2. Discover the dictionary definitions of five of these 
words, and be ready to explain the connection between those 
meanings and the literal meanings. 

41. Word-Building 

exercise 

In the supplementary lists in Section 10 you will find 
a large number of short words. Choose one of the lists there, 
and build longer words by the use of prefixes and suffixes. 
Write out your results. Explain every euphonic change you 
make, and be ready to give the literal meanings of the re- 
sulting words. 



62 Knowing and Using Words 

42. Word-Analysis 



EXERCISE 



Analyze the following words into their component parts, 
arrange in tabular form as in Section 35, and give at least 
one other word you can build from the root of each. 



accountant 

assistance 

attempting 

inattention 

unannounced 

comparative 

inconvenience 

telegrapher 

telephonic 

separation 

infallible 

affectionately 



experimental 

manufacture 

biologically 

absence 

reflection 

literary 

universal 

locality 

anniversary 

improvident 

injudicious 

inexhaustible 



observation 



CHAPTER VIII 

WHAT WORDS SAY FOR US: FINDING THE RIGHT 

WORD 

43. Exact Words to Express Ideas 

It is of little use to know how to pronounce or to 
spell words unless you know how to use them. Words 
have only two tasks to accomplish : to help you to 
give your meaning to other people ; and to tell you the 
meaning of other people. It is not always easy to 
find the exact word that expresses an idea. Perhaps 
you want one word instead of several ; or you wish to 
use a long, dignified word instead of a short, homely 
one. The next exercises will be devoted to practice 
in finding the exact word needed to convey a special 
meaning. 

For instance, suppose you want a single word to 
say that a boy's character is so bad that it is not-able- 
to-be-made-better. The word that conveys by means of 
prefixes and suffixes -the meaning of all these short 
words is in-corrig-ible. Or suppose you want to de- 
scribe a person who feels glad when you are glad and 
sad when you are sad — who feels-with you. You say 
that person is sym-path-etic. 

63 



64 Knowing and Using Words 



EXERCISE 

Choose from the list of words given below, a single word 
that expresses the meaning of each group of words connected 
by hyphens. 

1. The tariff is intended to give protection to home 
(people-who-make-things-by-hand) against foreign (process- 
of-stri ving- with) . 

2. The candidate is (not-fit-to-be-chosen-out). 

3. Your letter is (not-able-to-be-read). 

4. The (stepping-forward) party is stronger than that of 
the (people-who-want-to-keep-things-as-they-are) . 

5. A new movement in schools is that for (watched-over) 
study. 

6. High prices are often due to difficulties in (process-of- 
carrying-things-across) . 

7. The president was elected (in-a-way-that-showed-all- 
were-of-one-mind) . 

8. The editor returned the (something- written-by-hand). 

9. It is not the best form to use (shorter-way s-of -saying- 
things) . 

10. Sometimes a nation has to resort to armed (act-of- 
coming-between) . 

11. After they had destroyed the house, they set out to 
(build-together-again) it. 

12. Your essay is full of (flowing-over-what-is-enough) 
words. 

13. I am afraid the (thing-that-moves-of-itself) has met 
with an (something-that-happens-to-one). 

14. This (something-that-joins-together) is a (of-an-order- 
below-another) one. 

15. He is a (lover-of-men) and a public (one-who-does-well) . 

16. The prices of the two articles are (of-equal-worth) to 
each other. 



The Right Word 



65 



conservatives 

opportunity 

illegible 

elegant 

manufacturers 

suitable 

transportation 

diameter 

arbitration 

superfluous 

accident 

philanthropist 



benevolent 

competition 

progressive 

communication 

unanimously 

manuscript 

radius 

abbreviations 

intervention 

automobile 

conjunction 

equivalent 



enthusiastically 

eligible 

circumference 

sympathy 

supervised 

mediation 

reconstruct 

locomotive 

subordinate 

benefactor 

influence 

elaborate 



44. Exact Words to Express Ideas, Continued. 

EXERCISE 

Replace the hyphenated groups of words by single words, 
built up with prefixes and suffixes upon the roots given in 
the list at the end. 

1. Her (inclined-to-hold-back) memory recalled days of 
long ago. 

2. The (cast-do wn-in-spirits) woman sought to find where 
work was (able-to-be-got-hold-of). 

3. The (thrown-aside) applicant clung to his purpose (in- 
the-manner-of-holding-on-tightly). 

4. In (a-condition-of-being-without-hope) the ruined busi- 
ness man turned to (act-of-killing-one's-self). 

5. In the city playground there is always one (person- 
who-watches-over-things) to direct the children's (things- 
that-are-being-carried-on) . 

6. The returned (person-who-is-sent-out) had many 
strange things to tell about India. 

7. The (sending-across) of sound follows certain laws. 

8. The bell rang for (act-of-sending-away). 

9. Try to (turn-away) her mind from unpleasant topics. 



66 Knowing and Using Words 

10. You must (look-over-again) your composition. 

11. The (seizing-hold-before) of a thing is often pleasanter 
than the (trying-out) of it. 

12. I will (turn-back) to the previous subject. 

13. Sympathy for one person should not cause the (act- 
of -shut ting-out) of others from our help. 

14. The war has made women more (not-hanging-from- 
anyone). 

15. As soon as peace was restored there was a (bringing- 
to-life-again) of trade. 



tent-, ten-, tain- 


clus- 


pend- 


ject- 


sper- 


vis- 


miss- 


ag-, act- 


cip- 


cid- 


vert- 
per- 


viv- 



45. Word-Building for Sentence Use 
exercise 

Make short sentences, correctly using the words built 
from the following combinations of root and prefix. 

1. Combine vert- with: in, con, re, a. 

2. Combine miss- or mitt- with : dis, trans, com, per, ad. 

3. Combine due- or duct- with : e, re, in, con, pro, de, ab. 

4. Combine tent-, tain-, or tend- with : re, con, in, main, 
enter, sub, de. 

5. Combine press- with : in, de, com, sub, re, ex. 

6. Combine elude- with : in, ex, con. 

7. Combine scrib-, script- with : de, in, sub, pre, pro, 
trans, a. 

8. Combine port- with : in, ex, de, sub, re, trans. 

9. Combine vid-, vis- with : pro, de, in, ad 

10. Combine vene-, vent- with : in, pre, con, inter. 



The Right Word 67 

46. Long Words for Short 
exercise 

From the list at the end choose a longer, more dignified 
word to replace each of the short words in italics. 

1. The girl's manner was very lively. 

2. The fire spread throughout the residence section of the 
city, destroying many fine buildings. 

3. Her hat and mine are the same in style. 

4. Choose the one which you like best. 

5. The president made a fine speech. 

6. Hardly a piece of the first structure is left. 

7. His fatherly fondness made him overlook the fault. 

8. The teacher tried to make the lesson clear. 

9. It is time to go to bed. 

10. The traveler's fingers were stiff with cold. 

11. The shape of the room was round. 

12. The old man was a very queer character. 

13. The ruler of an autocracy has absolute power. 

14. The play was presented in a roomy hall. 

15. Murder is one of the few capital crimes. 

16. His face was pale and his figure thin. 

17. I shall be glad of the chance to see you sometimes. 

18. The hopeless doctor gave up the effort to find a cure. 

19. The garrison gave up the fort. 

20. The growth of the city government has been rapid. 

countenance oration fragment 

opportunity conflagration edifices 

prefer remains identical 

vivacious instructor paternal 

select rigid endeavored 

original eccentric circular 

affection drama sovereign 



68 Knowing and Using Words 



retire 


emaciated 


homicide 


spacious 


desperate 


occasionally 


physician 


remedy 


abandoned 


surrendered 


development 


municipal 



47. Choosing One of Two Words 
exercise 

Choose between the words in parenthesis the word best 
fitted to the sentence. Explain your choice. 

1. This wealthy man is (notorious, noted) for his gener- 
osity. 

2. The well-known clergyman (officiated, presided) at the 
funeral. 

3. The judge (refused, declined) to grant the prisoner's 
(demand, request). 

4. She courteously (refused, declined) the invitation. 

5. That course of action is not (practical, practicable) in 
this crisis. 

6. A law to (abolish, prevent) the liquor traffic should be 
(enacted, enforced). 

7. The attorney general conducted the (persecution, 
prosecution). 

8. (Proceed, precede) with your explanation. 

9. The lady of highest rank (proceeded, preceded) the 
others. 

10. My friend's letter was a beautiful expression of (pity, 
sympathy). 

11. The speaker's (pronunciation, enunciation) is not, 
distinct. 

12. Her gown, though plain, was (elegant, handsome) in 
style. 

13. I had an (elegant, splendid, delightful) time at the 
party. 



The Right Word 69 

14. Father has bought me a (magnificent, handsome, 
gorgeous) set of furs. 

15. The true knight of chivalry was a (courteous, polite) 
gentleman. 

16. I am (thankful, grateful) to you for your kindness. 

48. Overworked Words 

The language is full of overworked words, — words 
that have to perform the duties of other words as well 
as their own, and that do not at all convey the exact 
meanings of the people who use them. 

EXERCISE 

In the following sentences, substitute for the overworked 
words (italicized) other words that will convey definite, 
exact meanings. 

1. She is a nice girl. 

I had a nice time at the picnic. 

We are having nice weather. 

It is nice that you are going abroad. 

2. Mary has a sweet disposition. 
Your new dress is sweet. 

It is sweet of you to give me this. 

3. It is a grand day to go to the country. 

The new soprano in our choir has a grand voice. 
How do you like her? Oh, she's just grand. 

4. Isn't it great that he has won the prize? 
The new teacher is simply great. 

This is a great state of affairs. 

5. Go and fix your hair. 

She had to fix the room, for guests were coming. 
Fix it so that you needn't go home early. 



70 Knowing and Using Words 

Let me fix your collar for you. 
Have you fixed the broken chair ? 

6. She is too cute for anything. 
Mary's little sister is very cute. 

That man would look cute on horseback. 

7. I had an awful cold. 

That is an awfully good book. 
You are awfully kind to say so. 
I was awfully glad to get home. 

8. She got home very late. 

The old lady got off the car with difficulty. 

We got new books to-day. 

They got ready as soon as possible. 

9. Will it be all right to leave the door unlocked ? 
I am waiting for you. All right. 

I will make it all right with your mother. 
Is my composition all right t 

49. Words for Exact Description 

When you wish to describe something that you have 
seen, you have need for very definite, vivid words. 
There are descriptive words that suggest very definite 
pictures ; for instance, the thunder rumbles or rolls 
when it is distant ; when it is near by, it crashes. 

EXERCISE 

Find descriptive words to convey the following ideas. 
1. A verb that will suggest the manner of walking of : 

A sailor. 

A tramp. 

A prim old lady on a wet day. 

A child hurrying to school. 



The Right Word 71 

A drunkard. 

A brisk business man. 

A tired workman. 

A young couple on Sunday afternoon. 

2. A verb that will suggest the sound of : 

A fire-engine bell. 

fat a wedding. 
A church bell I at a funeral. 

[ on Sunday morning. 
A doorbell. 

3. A verb that will suggest the motion of : 

A squirrel on a tree. 

A robin on the lawn. 

A sea gull. 

A frightened pigeon. 

An automobile. 

A horse at full speed. 

A lazy cat. 

4. An adjective that will describe the odor of : 

A rose. 

Molasses cake baking. 

Gasoline. 

Ammonia. 

Seaweed. 

50. Exact Narrative Words 
exercise 

The ideas expressed in the following words need frequently 
to be conveyed in writing narrative. Make a list of syno- 
nyms that can be substituted for each, to avoid repetition. 

come beautiful know 

work give interesting 



72 Knowing and Using Words 



take 


say 


brave 


house 


ask 


shine 


good 


answer 


look 



Are the meanings of the synonyms you have suggested 
exactly the same as those of the words in the list? If not, 
in what particular situation would you use each of them? 
For instance, the word retort conveys a different meaning 
from the word reply ; you would use it when some one was 
replying with a good deal of annoyance. Point out all such 
distinctions among the words on your list. 



CHAPTER IX 

WHAT WORDS SAY TO US: INTERPRETING 
IDEAS 

51. Interpretation ; Short Words for Long 

Practice in finding words to express your own mean- 
ing will help you, of course, to understand the words 
used by others. Yet it is not always easy to grasp 
exactly the meaning of the words on a printed page. 
You cannot read understandingly until you are able, 
if necessary, to restate in your own words the exact 
meaning of the words of others. For example : "Her 
intervention, while effective, did not expose her to 
undue hazard, " would be much easier to understand 
if you restated it, taking twice as many words, but 
simpler ones: "Her coming between the others, while 
it did the work it was intended to do, did not make 
her run any more risk than she was able to meet." 

We shall begin our practice in such restatement of 
puzzling expressions by using words with which you 
are already familiar through the exercises in Sections 
43-47. 

EXERCISE 

Restate in your own words the following sentences. The 
words italicized are those which need interpretation. 

1. Competition is the life of trade. 

2. Only good students are eligible for the team. 

73 



74 Knowing and Using Words 

3. The news in a conservative newspaper is likely to be 
reliable. 

4. He is a truly philanthropic citizen. 

5. We decided unanimously to take quick action. 

6. The supervisor reported that many things needed 
change. 

7. To praise so great a man is superfluous. 

8. New methods of transportation and communication 
have made the world smaller. 

9. It is often more difficult to reconstruct than to make 
something new. 

10. He maintained his argument by three propositions. 

11. The work of the preacher was followed by a revival in 
the church. 

12. Wealthy people are often very exclusive. 

52. Interpretation of Words 

You are now ready to interpret sentences containing 
harder words with which you are perhaps not so 
familiar. You will often have to use the dictionary in 
restating the sentences in the following lessons. 

EXERCISE 

Substitute simpler words, or groups of words, for the 
italicized words in the following sentences. 

1. Simultaneously with the report of the gun, the exasper- 
ated animal fell dead. 

2. Inability to adapt one's self to a crisis often means failure 
in one's chosen vocation. 

3. We must adopt some line of action without delay. 

4. The present occasion demands dispatch and dexterity. 

5. Popular government is a development of the last century 
in Europe. 



Interpreting Ideas 75 

6. His physical strength, in which he resembled his father, 
was maintained by temperate habits. 

7. His letters displayed clear perception and irresistible 
power to convince. 

8. Versatility is the robber of strength. 

53. Interpretation of Ideas Suggested by Words 

exercise 

Rewrite in simple words of your own the following sen- 
tences. Italicized words need simplifying. 

1. It is a great achievement to learn to accept the inevitable. 

2. The extensive property was depreciating in value. 

3. The disasters brought by the war were incredible in 
magnitude. 

4. Such trials would be unendurable, did we not hope that 
the principles for which we are contending will triumph 
permanently. 

5. The world has a profound conviction that respect for 
international law must be enforced. 

6. The degree of appreciation manifested by an audience 
gives a speaker instant discouragement or inspiration. 

7. Enthusiastic and sympathetic auditors make a man do 
his best ; if they are cold and unresponsive, his power will 
be diminished. 

54. Simplifying Hard Words 
exercise 

Substitute simpler expressions of your own which will 
interpret the words italicized. 

1. Many workmen, for humanitarian reasons, object to 
the manufacturing in their shops of ammunition for belliger- 
ent nations. 



76 Knowing and Using Words 

2. We have learned the commercial interdependence of 
nations. 

3. A refusal to obey is & fundamental reason for discharg- 
ing an army officer ; and he is highly culpable who criticizes 
his superiors. Such a person is sure ultimately to be dis- 
missed. 

4. Food is wasted by modern prodigals in careless shipping, 
in injudicious buying, and in improvident cooking. 

5. Mercantile shipping is at a point of tremendous stimu- 
lation. 

6. Our legislators need to realize the universal importance 
of financial readjustment. 

7. Attempts to modify the tariff laws have had no per- 
ceptible effect. 

8. The war revolutionized the shipping industry. 

9. It is intolerable to think that international law can be 
so disregarded in the ardor of national expansion. 

55. Interpretation of Derivative Words 
exercise 

a. Separate into their component parts the italicized 
derivative words, arranging the results in tabular form as 
in Section 35. 

b. Restate the sentences, interpreting their thought in 
the light of their derivation as you have worked it out. 

1. " I began to consider with myself what innumerable 
multitudes of people lay confused together under the pave- 
ment of that ancient cathedral, undistinguished in the same 
promiscuous heap of matter. Several of the monuments 
were covered with extravagant epitaphs; others were ex- 
cessively modest." — Addison, " The Spectator." 

2. "I think it one of the most important duties of social 
benevolence to give warning of the approach of calamity, 



Interpreting Ideas 77 

when by timely prevention it may be averted, or by prepara- 
tory measures more easily endured." 

" From the tediousness of the melancholy suspension of 
life, I would preserve those who are exposed to it, only by 
inexperience; who want not inclination to wisdom and virtue, 
though they have been dissipated by negligence, or misled 
by example. Art and nature have stores inexhaustible by 
human intellects; and every moment produces something 
new to him, who has quickened his faculties by diligent 
observation." — Johnson, " The Rambler." 

56. Supplementary Passages for Interpretation 

These are to be used at the teacher's discretion for 
interpretation, word-analysis, and simplification, in 
the manner of preceding lessons. 1 The words italicized 
are the ones recommended for study. 



" His letters exhibit a perpetual and unclouded benevolence. 
There is nothing but liberality, gratitude, constancy, and 
tenderness. There is no transaction which offers stronger 
temptation to fallacy than epistolary intercourse. A friendly 
letter is a calm and deliberate performance in the cool of 
leisure, in the stillness of solitude, and surely no man sits 

1 This material may to some extent be used, if desired, in connec- 
tion with the lessons on word-analysis in Chapters IV- VII. It will 
be seen that many of the words are derivatives, easily divided into 
their component parts ; but some of them are words which have not 
been discussed in earlier lessons. Many words, not derivatives 
or not easily separable, call merely for interpretation, not analysis ; 
discussion of them will need careful study of the dictionary. 

For the most practical results, however, it will be found that 
extracts from editorials and magazine articles on topics of current 
interest will be more alive for purposes of class interpretation than 
are these literary and classical extracts. 



78 Knowing and Using Words 

down to depreciate by design his own character. A letter 
is addressed to a single mind, of which the prejudices and 
partialities are known; and must therefore please, if not 
by favoring them, at least by forbearing to oppose them." 
— Johnson, " The Character of Pope." 

II 

" Poetry in essence is as familiar to barbarous as to civilized 
nations. The Laplander and the savage Indian are cheered 
by it as well as the inhabitants of London and Paris; its 
spirit takes up and incorporates surrounding materials, as a 
plant clothes itself with soil and climate, whilst it exhibits 
the working of a vital principle within, independent of all 
accidental circumstances. It is essential to poetry that it be 
simple, and appeal to the elements and primary laws of our 
nature ; that it be sensuous, and by its imagery elicit truth 
at a flash ; that it be impassioned, and be able to move our 
feelings and awaken our affections." — Coleridge. 

Ill 

" Burns appeared under every disadvantage ; uninstructed, 
poor, born only to hard manual toil ; and writing in a rustic 
special dialect. Had he written in the general language of 
England, I doubt not he had already become universally 
recognized as capable to be one of our greatest men. That 
he should have tempted so many to penetrate through the 
rough husk of that dialect, is proof that there lay something 
far from common within it." — Carlyle. 

IV 

" The culprit was not unworthy of that great presence. 
He had ruled an extensive and populous country. He looked 
like a great man and not like a bad man. A person small 
and emaciated, yet deriving dignity from a carriage which, 
while it indicated deference to the Court, indicated also 



Interpreting Ideas 79 

habitual self-possession and self-respect, a high and intellectual 
forehead, a brow pensive, sl mouth of inflexible decision, a face 
pale and worn, but serene; such was the aspect with which 
Warren Hastings presented himself to his judges." 

— Macaulay. 
V 

" We have legible countenances, like an open book ; things 
that cannot be said look eloquently through the eyes." 

" There is no duty we so much underrate as the duty of 
being happy. By being happy, we sow anonymous benefits 
upon the world, which remain unknown even to ourselves^ 
or when they are disclosed, surprise nobody so much as the 
benefactor" — Robert Louis Stevenson. 

VI 

" The whole period of youth is one essentially of formation, 
edification, instruction; intaking of stores, establishment in 
vital habits, hopes, and faiths. There is not an hour of it 
but is trembling with destinies." 

" Woman must be enduringly, incorruptibly good ; instinc- 
tively, infallibly wise, not for self -development, but for self- 
renunciation; wise, not with the narrowness of insolent and 
loveless pride, but with the passionate gentleness of an in- 
finitely variable, because infinitely applicable, modesty of serv- 
ice." — John Ruskin. 

VII 

" Reciprocity treaties are in harmony with the spirit of the 
times; measures of retaliation are not. Let us remember 
that our interest is in accord, not conflict; and that our real 
eminence rests in the victories of peace, not those of war." 

— William McKinley. 
VIII 

" Does a bird need to theorize about building its nest, or 
boast of it when built? All good work is essentially done 



80 Knowing and Using Words 

that way — without hesitation, without difficulty, without 
boasting; and in the doers of the best, there is an inner 
and involuntary power which approximates literally to the 
instinct of an animal. I am certain that in the most per- 
fect human artists, reason does not supersede instinct, but is 
added to an instinct as much more divine than that of the 
lower animals as the human body is more beautiful than 
theirs ; that a great singer sings not with less instinct than 
the nightingale, but with more — only more various, appli- 
cable, and governable." — Ruskin. 

IX 

" Human art is dependent on an amount of practice, of 
science, — and of imagination disciplined by thought, which 
the true possessor of it knows to be incommunicable, and the 
true critic of it, inexplicable, except through long process of 
laborious years." 

" Art is neither to be achieved by effort of thinking, nor 
explained by accuracy of speaking. It is the necessary re- 
sult of powers which can only be developed through the 
mind of successive generations, and which finally burst into 
life under social conditions as slow of growth as the fac- 
ulties they regulate." — Ruskin. 

X 

" Great works of art teach us to abide by our spontaneous 
impression with good-humored inflexibility." 

" If malice and vanity wear the coat of philanthropy, shall 
that pass? " 

" What I must do, is all that concerns me, not what the 
people think. This rule, equally arduous in actual and in 
intellectual life, may serve for the whole distinction between 
greatness and meanness." — R. W. Emeeson. 



Interpreting Ideas 81 

XI 

" Men imagine that they communicate their virtue or 
vice only by overt actions and do not see that virtue and 
vice emit sl breath every moment." 

" An institution is the lengthened shadow of one man. All 
history resolves itself very easily into the biography of a few 
stout and earnest persons." — R. W. Emerson. 

XII 

" The laws of friendship are great, austere, and eternal." 
" A friend is a person with whom I may be sincere." 
" The end of friendship is a commerce the most strict and 
homely that can be joined. It is fit for serene days, and 
graceful gifts, and country rambles, but also for rough roads 
and hard fare, shipwreck, poverty, and persecution. We are 
to dignify to each other the daily needs and offices of man's 
life, and embellish it by courage, wisdom, and unity. It 
should be alert and inventive, and add rhyme and reason to 
what was drudgery." — R. W. Emerson. 

XIII 

" One side of our nature finds its satisfaction in the regular, 
the proper, the conventional. But there is another side of 
our nature that takes delight in the strange, the free, the 
spontaneous." 

" Memory is a capricious and arbitrary creature. You 
can never tell what inconspicuous flower of the field she will 
preserve as the symbol of hallowed thoughts." 

" The life of man is a demonstrated daily miracle. It 
shows that the physical laws which we know and the physical- 
forces which we can measure are traversed by spiritual laws 
which we do not know and spiritual forces which we cannot 
measure. It proves the reality and potency of that which is 
invisible" — Henry Van Dyke. 



82 Knowing and Using Words 

XIV 

" Promote, as an object of primary importance, institutions 
for the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as 
the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, 
it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened." 

— George Washington. 

" All men are endowed by their creator with certain 
inalienable rights." — Declaration of Independence. 



CHAPTER X 
WORDS THAT MUST BE REMEMBERED 

57. Useful Memory Groups 

There are many words in our puzzling English 
language that refuse to let themselves be fitted under 
any rule, and which spell themselves apparently with- 
out reason. The best thing that we can do with these 
words is to try to group such of them as are in common 
use in a way that may help to fasten their tricks of 
spelling in our memories. The groups that follow 
may be useful, showing words not likely to be mis- 
spelled, side by side with others just like them which 
often suffer. 



1. Notice: 








column 








solemn 






but 


autumn 








mountain 








fountain 








certain 


all have 


the s 


same last syllable 


curtain 




and 


so has 


captain 








bargain 









volume 



villain 



83 



84 



Knowing and Using Words 



stretch 




reach 


sketch 




speech 


witch 




which 


stitch 




niche 


snatch 


all insert a silent t : but 


attach 


patch 




ostrich 


satchel 




sandwich 


pitcher 




duchess 


kitchen 




bachelor 


once " 






since 


are monosyllables where 


rinse 


fence 


ce has the sound of s ; 


sense 


dunce 


unlike 


ounce 






edge 




p 


wedge 


insert a d to insure the 


privilege 


dodge 


soft sound of g; un- 


sacrilege 


drudge 


like 


village 


ledger 







do not. 



2. Learn these catch sentences : 

a. The man stared aghast at the ghost. (Notice gh in 
italicized words). 

b. It is so peculiar that I am not familiar with anything 
similar. (Notice iar in two words, ar in the third). 

c. Are you sure you put sugar in the tea? (Notice the 
sound of h in italicized words. These two, with sumach, are 
the only words so spelled.) 

d. They succeeded in exceeding the proceeds of last year. 
(All other words but these three, ending in the syllable so 
sounded, spell it cede; e.g. precede, concede, etc.). 

3. Study the following groups of words, troublesome be- 
cause of the presence of silent letters. 



Memory Groups 



85 



Silent b Final. Silent u. Silent w before r. Silent k before n. 



thumb 


guess 


wreck 


knack 


numb 


guest 


wrench 


knave 


plumber 


guard 


wretched 


knead 


jamb 


guarantee 


wrestle 


knee 


climb 


guilt 


write 


knell 


comb 


guise 


writhe 


knoll 


tomb 


guitar 


wrist 


knife 


bomb 


build 


wrong 


knight 


(o like u) 


liquor 




knit 
knot 


Silent g before n. 




knob 


gnaw 






know 


gnarl 






knock 


gnat 






knuckle 



58. Obscure Vowels 

Many errors arise because of what are called obscure 
vowels, that is, vowels which are so slightly sounded that 
the pronunciation gives little hint as to their identity. 
As far as the sound goes, separate might as easily have an 
e as an a in its second syllable. This is partly a matter 
of memory. Study the obscure vowels indicated in the 
list below. Do you notice any words in which the study 
of word-building would help you to use the right vowel, 
because you recall the component parts of the word ? 



separate 


furniture 


repetition 


apparatus 


sacrifice 


secretary 


extravagant 


definite 


celebrate 


salary 


privilege 


skeleton 


ornament 


dissipation 




derivative 


specimen 


frivolous 




medicine 


opportunity 



86 



Knowing and Using Words 



59. IE AND EI 

When we come to the words containing ie or ei we 
are dependent very largely upon our memory. Many 
rules have been devised to make the remembering 
easier, but none fits all the cases. 

One of the best rules is, after s or c, e comes before 
i, except in siege and sieve ; in other cases i precedes e, 
except in leisure. A good way to remember this is to 
employ as a catchword the word slice, noticing that 
c is followed by e, which after c comes first in the 
diphthong ; and that I is followed by i } which after 
any letter except c comes first in the diphthong. This 
is true with very few exceptions. 

Another good rule is the old familiar 

"I before e 
Except after c, 
Or when sounded as a, 
As in neighbor and weigh. 11 

But there are some exceptions even to that rule. Be- 
low are classified for study, first the words that follow 
the rule, then the few that do not. 







1 BEFORE e 




achieve 


fierce 


chief 


frieze (cf. freeze) 


relieve 


pierce 


mischief 


siege 


believe 


field 


handkerchief 


priest 


reprieve 


shield 


niece 


shriek 


brief 


wield 


piece (cf. peace) 


view 


grief 


yield 


bier (cf. beer) 


fiend 


thief 


sieve 


tier (cf. tear) 


friend 



Memory Groups 87 



e BEFORE 1 SOUNDED AS a 





heir (cf. air) 




neighbor 






their (cf . there) 




heinous 






eight (cf. ate) 




reign (cf. rain) 






freight 






foreign 






sleigh 






reins 






weigh (cf 


. way) 




skein 






deign 






veil 






feign 




• 


feint (cf. faint) 








e BEFORE 


1 i AFTER C 








conceive 












deceive 












receive 












perceive, 


etc. 










ceiling (cf. sealing) 




e BEFORE 


i SOUNDED AS e AND NOT . 


A.FTER ( 


I e BEFORE i SOUNDED AS 


weird 




forfeit 




height 




seize 




surfeit 




sleight (cf. 


slight) 


neither 




leisure 








counterfeit 











Learn : The height of the ceiling is eight feet. With 
weird sleight of hand he seized his chance to feign to de- 
ceive us. 

60. E, AE, AND EE 

Another class of puzzling words is that of the e and 
ea words; for example, herd and heard, sounded just 
alike and spelled differently. Again, it is hard to 
know when to use ee and when to use ea, for they often 
sound alike ; and sometimes ea has the sound of a. 
Study the following groups, which contain the most 
common of these words. 



88 



Knowing and Using Words 





ea sounded like ee 






ee words 


bleach 


creature 


breathe 




bleed 


preach 


reason 


league 




beseech 


peach 


repeat 


increase 


seek 


grease 


beneath 


dream 




sleeve 


crease 


appear 


weary 




speech 


scream 


treat 


cleave (cf. clever) 


steep 


squeal 


stream 


lead (present tense) 


weep 


speak 


streak 


deal 




squeeze 


steam 


easy 


weave 




creep 


Some words are spelt both 


ways, but with different meanings. 




steal steel 




real reel 






weak week 




dear deer 






meat meet 




seam seem 






read reed 




peal peel 






ea SOUNDED LIKI 


3 e 




ready 


leather (cf. tether) 


treasure 


instead 


steady 


weather 




measure 


pleasant 


jealous 


lead (cf. verb led) 


spread 


breakfast 


zealous 


bread (cf. bred) 




thread 


treachery 


death 


breast (cf . test) 




threaten 


endeavor 


breath 


dealt (cf. melt) 




health 


meadow 


feather 


meant (cf. lent) 




wealth 


heavy 


ea sounded like e ea sounded liki 


a a ea sounded like a 


early 


break (cf. brake) heart (cf. part) 


pearl 


steak (cf. stake) hearth 




dearth 


pear ( 


'cf. pare] 


) 




earth 


tear (cf. tare) 






learn (cf. stern) 








heard (cf. herd) 








search (cf. perch) 






i 


rehearse 










earnest 











Memory Groups 



89 



Memorize the following catch sentences, each of which 
puts an easy word with hard ones that are spelled like it. 

1. The heart longs for hearth and home. 

2. Do not break the limb of the pear tree nor tear your 
clothes in climbing. 

3. She searched for her lost pearls early and late. 

4. I heard him say earnestly that he would learn his part 
before he rehearsed it. 

5. I meant instead of working to endeavor to regain my 
health in some measure while it was pleasant weather. 

6. I beseech you not to creep into a corner and weep, but to 
seem brave and meet me next week. 

7. He did not dream that he had any real reason to treat the 
man as if he would steal. 

61. Review 

Fill the blanks in the following words with vowels or diph- 
thongs chosen from the list. 
e, a, ea, ee, ei, ie. 
ach — vement gr — vous 



pi — sure 
sover — gn 
br — thless 
b — chnut 
misch — vous 
b— fst— k 
st — rt 
air — dy 



s — mless 
ber — vement 
al — n 
ap — ce 
app — ling 
wh — ther 
rev — w 
ch — ft — n 



br — kwater gr — ting 

br — dth gr — tness 

br — thing h — rth gr — te 

h — vyw — ght m — ntime 



v — n 
squ — k 
h— rtfelt 
h — rden 
sheph — rd 



well-m — nt 
re — lm 
r — lize 
m — sles 



62. OU, AU, AND OA 



Words that contain the dipthhongs ou, au, and oa 
make trouble, too ; for we have to be careful not to 
use these letter combinations when really aw, or ow, or 
simply o is called for. 



90 



Knowing and Using Words 



Study the following groups : 



OU SOUNDED LIKE OW 


OU SOUNDED LIKE 00 


OU SOUNDED LIKE aW 


drought 


could 


sought 


county 


through (cf . threw) 


thought 


found 


wound 


ought 


pound 




pour 


bough 




cough 


doubt 




course 


OU SOUNDED LIKE 


u 


OU SOUNDED LIKE 6 


rough 




shoulder 


trouble 




though 


touch 




boulder 


country 




dough 


enough 







Learn : You ought to go to the country to cure the 

cough with which you are troubled. 

The surgeon found a wound in the man's 

shoulder, though he thought he had been 

shot through the arm. 

Be sure to pour water enough in your dough. 



aU SOUNDED LIKE aW 


aU SOUNDED LIKE 


taught 


taunt 


sauce 


laundry 


fault 


laughter 


faucet 


draught 


slaughter 


aunt 


daughter 




Oa SOUNDED LIKE 6 




hoard (cf. horde) 


loath 


hoarse (cf. horse) 


groan 


approach 


float 


road 


throat 



Memory Groups 91 

Oa SOUNDED LIKE 6 

roast board 

coat coarse 

shoal 

63. Rules for Plurals 

Incorrect formation of plurals is the cause of many 
misspellings. You have always known that the sign 
of the plural is s ; but there are numerous cases where 
s is not enough, and these need careful study. 

a. Words which end in an s-sound add es to form 
the plural, (s, sh, ch, x, z.) 

gas gases 

speech speeches 

mesh meshes 

ax axes 

b. Words which end in y preceded by a consonant 
change y to i and add es. 

ally allies 

country countries 
library libraries 

Note that this rule does not apply to words where 
y is preceded by a vowel. 

alley alleys 

day days 

monkey monkeys 

c. Both these rules apply equally to the formation 
of the present third singular of verbs, to form which s is 
usually added to the first singular. 

I approach he approaches 
I try he tries 



92 



Knowing and Using Words 



EXERCISE 



Form the plural of all nouns and the third singular present 
of all verbs in the following list : 



chimney 


valley 


journey 


witch 


chorus 


sympathy 


prairie 


century 


country 


canoe 


curiosity 


anxiety 


story 


church 


prophesy 


witness 


annex 


box 


circus 


melody 


supply 


tragedy 


empty 


territory 


occupy 


comedy 


carry 


abbey 


cruelty 


apology 


fairy 


attorney 


turkey 


trolley 


family 


lily 



64. Rules for Plurals, continued 

There are two groups of words in each of which 
there are two ways of forming the plural. 

a. Nouns ending in o after a consonant add es; 
nouns ending in o after a vowel add s. This does not 
apply to musical terms in o, all of which add s. 



echo 


echoes 


folio 


folios 


cargo 


cargoes 


soprano 


sopranos 


cameo 


cameos 


solo 


solos 



b. Most nouns ending in / or fe form their plural 
regularly, but a few change / or fe into v and add es. 



belief 
wife 



beliefs 
wives 



Memory Groups 



93 



EXERCISE 



the plurals of 


the following nouns : 




negro 


buffalo 


leaf 


oratorio 


studio 


roof 


potato 


mosquito 


strife 


tomato 


portfolio 


life 


mulatto 


curio 


wolf 


volcano 


sheriff 


shelf 


motto 


waif 


sheaf 


aloe 


dwarf 


calf 


loaf 


thief 


wharf 


half 


knife 


proof 


handkerchief 


elf 


cuckoo 


hero 


alto 


torpedo 



65. Irregular Plurals 

Notice the following groups of nouns, and study 
the modes of forming plurals shown in them. 



man 


men 


brother 


brethren 


woman 


women 


child 


children 


goose 


geese 


ox 


oxen 


foot 


feet 


sheep 


sheep 


tooth 


teeth 


deer 


deer 


mouse 


mice 


fish 


fish 



A few nouns which have come into English from other 
languages and keep their original spelling keep also 
the foreign formation of the plural. The following are 
among the most common of them : 

crisis crises (datum) data 

beau beaux (stratum) strata 

phenomenon phenomena thesis theses 



94 



Knowing and Using Words 



vertex 


vertices 


tableau 


tableaux 


axis 


axes 


parenthesis 


parentheses 


analysis 


analyses 


alumna 


alumnae 


synopsis 


synopses 


vertebra 


vertebrae 



66. Proper Names 

If a text-book should start in to give lists of proper 
names that the ordinary person should know how to 
spell, it would find difficulty in reaching a full stop. 
Of course as you study history and geography and 
literature, you learn to spell the words that you meet 
with in those subjects, for you cannot prove that you 
are educated along any line if you cannot use its terms 
correctly. But no matter what you may be studying 
or reading, there are certain proper names that you 
must spell correctly. Those are the names that have 
prominence in your own country, your own state, and 
your own locality, whether they are names of people 
or of places. 

EXERCISES 

1 . From the list of states in the Union select the ten whose 
names you find it hardest to spell, and be sure that you can 
spell them. The list should include your own state. 

2. Learn to spell the names of the ten largest cities in the 
United States. 

3. What are the important cities in your own state? Be 
sure that you can spell their names. 

4. If you live in a city, think what are the streets whose 
names you have most frequent occasion to use. Can you 
spell them all? 

5. Do you ever misspell any of the names of the days in 
the week or of the months in the year ? Learn to spell them 



Memory Groups 



95 



correctly. Which are the names most likely to be mis- 
spelled ? 

6. Think of as many names as you can belonging to re- 
ligious denominations. Learn to spell them. 

7. Think of as many names as you can designating im- 
portant races and nationalities. Learn to spell them. 



67. Current Words 

1. There are a few proper names, hard to spell, which 
are so constantly in use nowadays that everyone ought to 
know how to spell them. Perhaps you can add suggestions 
of your own to the list given here. 



Atlantic 


Hawaii 


Christian 


Huguenot 


Pacific 


Philippines 


Christmas 


Puritan 


Panama 


Manila 


Mississippi 


Versailles 


American 


Britain 


Niagara 


Napoleon 


European 


Briton 


Chautauqua 


Plantagenet 


Protestant 


Britannica 


Renaissance 


Caesar 


Catholic 


Teutonic 


Mohammedan 


Marseillaise 



2. Of course, too, you want to know how to spell the 
terms in current use in the immediate present in which you 
live. For instance, on the front page of a current news- 
paper at the time when this book is being written are found 
the following words all of which are the words in people's 
mouths : 



submarine 


khaki 


progressive 


Roosevelt 


aeroplane 


shrapnel 


compensation 


Carranza 


aviation corps 


allies 


constitutional 


Rumania 


automobile 


czar 


quarantine 


infantile 


chauffeur 


kaiser 


offensive 


conscription 


garage 


motorcycle 


defensive 


recruit 


artillery 


patrolman 


federation 


belligerent 


ammunition 


ambulance 


diplomatic 


conservation 



96 Knowing and Using Words 

3. Make a similar list of the words and names of prominent 
people, hard to spell, that you find in the newspapers at the 
time you study this lesson. Learn to spell them. 

4. Similarly, make a list of names of things much ad- 
vertised in your immediate present, and learn to spell them. 
You can find them in the advertising pages of a magazine, 
or even in the trolley cars. For instance, at the date of the 
writing of this book the following words are conspicuous in 
advertisements : 



Victrola 


Thermos 


Fels-Naphtha 


Steinway 


Resinol 


Congoleum 


Aluminum 


Carnation 


Alabastine 


Crisco 


Vitralite 


Wooltex 



68. Doubtful Suffixes 

A few generalizations and groupings may help you 
to remember certain words ending in puzzling suffixes. 
Some of the suffixes cause mistakes in spelling, because 
two or three different ones may have the same sound 
and give the same meaning to a word. For instance, 
we have beggar and tailor and writer, with three differ- 
ent suffixes sounding just alike and each making its 
word mean a person who does something. Again, 
the suffixes in existence and resistance sound alike and 
have the same noun force. To determine which to 
use in any given word is very puzzling, because there 
is no rule to guide us, and we have to depend on our 
memory and our word-sense — a form of common 
sense that makes us feel whether the word looks right 
or not. It will be necessary, therefore, to study next 



Memory Groups 



97 



the most commonly used words that have similar 
suffixes. 

In considering the -or, -ar, -er group of suffixes, we 
have one general truth to start with, that the majority 
of the nouns indicating the person or thing acting end 
in -er. These -er words — maker, speaker, employer, 
etc. — are for the most part the result of attaching 
the suffix to a simple English verb, which is a com- 
plete word, not a mere root, when the suffix is removed. 
Some of the -or words are of the same sort — con- 
queror, survivor, conductor ; but most of the -or words 
are either — 

1. Complete words, of which the ending is a neces- 
sary part ; as, parlor; or 

2. Words that are almost the same as original Latin 
words of the same meaning, in which the ending was 
-or ; as, rumor, senator. 



EXERCISES 

1. The first five words in the following list may be grouped 
together, and thus remembered more easily, because they 
are all words of two syllables that indicate the doer of an act. 
Divide the rest of the words on the list into similar groups. 
By associating these words one with another you will more 
easily remember their endings. 



sailor 


mayor 


error 


actor 


sculptor 


splendor 


creditor 


director 


tutor 


rumor 


clamor 


dictator 


doctor 


inventor 


senior 


denominator 


author 


conqueror 


transgressor 


creator 




survivor 


elector 


counselor 


instructor 


tremor 


supervisor 


contributor 



98 



Knowing and Using Words 



honor 


tenor 


conductor 


surveyor 


harbor 


executor 


visitor 


governor 


senator 


elevator 


junior 


professor 


valor 


ancestor 


protector 


conspirator 


labor 


parlor 


editor 


spectator 



2. Select from the list above all the words from which 
the suffix can be detached, leaving a complete word. Are 
they simple English words, or do they come from Latin 
roots? To what conclusion does this lead you about the 
use of the suffix -or ? 

Select all the words from which the suffix cannot be de- 
tached. 

3. The adjectives with these endings are easily disposed 
of. A few end in or; these were originally Latin adjectives 
in the comparative degree, and keep their old form : 
senior junior major minor 

Adjectives ending in -er are in the comparative degree : 
better happier greater smaller 

All other adjectives which end in a syllable of this sound 
spell it -ar : 
vulgar popular muscular similar singular familiar 

4. The nouns in common use ending in -ar are few enough 
to be quite easily mastered. Learn the following: 

beggar calendar 

liar sugar 

burglar altar (cf. alter) 

collar (cf. color) grammar 

dollar mortar 

5. Complete the following unfinished words by adding 
the suffixes -er, -ar, or -or. 

vot- peddl- keep- od- 

schol- propriet- suit- driv- 



Memory Groups 



99 



runn- 


los- 


flav- 


mot- 


debt- 


orat- 


burgl- 


liqu- 


col- 


warri- 


audit- 


hunt- 


play- 


raz- 


plumb- 


swimm- 


success- 


gramm- 


don- 


benefact- 


preach- 


lov- 


garden- 


council- 


past- 


jail- 


carpent- 


vap- 


wait- 


trait- 


•endeav- 


teach- 


pill- 


corn- 


ced- 


bachel- 


coll- 


fav- 


dagg- 


vict- 



69. Doubtful Suffixes (continued) 

Another group of suffixes that often make trouble 
even for a good speller is the -ence, -ent, -ance, -ant 
group. It is impossible to find any sort of rule to 
guide us here ; we must depend on our memory. 
Study the spelling of the words in the following list, 
all of them in frequent use. 



Nouns 


Adjectives 


Nouns 


Adjectives 


IN -ANCE. 


IN -ANT. 


IN -ENCE. 


IN -ENT. 


resistance 


resistant 


existence 


existent 


assistance 


assistant 


dependence 


dependent 


annoyance 


• 


violence 


violent 


forbearance 




patience 


patient 


vengeance 




diligence 


diligent 


grievance 




indolence 


indolent 


fragrance 


fragrant 


reverence 


reverent 


nuisance 




obedience 


obedient 


variance 


variant 


intelligence 


intelligent 


alliance 




convenience 


convenient 


remittance 


remittant 


excellence 


excellent 


conveyance 




competence 


competent 


countenance 




confidence 


confident 



100 



Knowing and Using Words 



Nouns 

IN -ANCE. 


Adjectives 

IN -ANT. 


Nouns 

IN -ENCE. 


Adjectives 

IN -ENT. 


appearance 

acquaintance 

ignorance 

deliverance 

utterance 


ignorant 


preference 

consistency 

efficiency 

prudence 

difference 


consistent 
efficient 
prudent 
different 


vigilance 

temperance 

abundance 


vigilant 
abundant 


, prominence 
consequence 
residence 


prominent 

consequent 

resident 


attendance 


attendant 


eminence 


eminent 


arrogance 

elegance 

consonance 


arrogant 

elegant 

consonant 


impertinence 

correspondence 

despondence 


impertinent 

correspondent 

despondent 


importance 
reluctance 


important 

pleasant 

reluctant 


presence 
sufficiency 


present 

sufficient 

descendent 


repentance 


repentant 

triumphant 

gallant 


coherence 
audience 
absence 
occurrence 


coherent 
absent 


Nouns in -ant 


Nouns in 


-ENT 


dependant 
consonant 
defendant 
descendant 


dependent 
superintendent 
correspondent 
resident 






present 





70. Doubtful Suffixes, continued 

The distinction between the suffixes -able and -ible 
is something like that between -or and -er. A simple 
English root may have -able added to it. Both suf- 
fixes are attached to Latin roots, or have come over 
into English as parts of original Latin words. But -ible 



Memory Groups 



101 



may never be added to an English root. Thus we 
have eat + able, an English root ; audible and portable, 
Latin roots, as well as possible from the Latin possibilis ; 
but never such a combination as (wrong) unspeakible. 
The common words that end in Me are comparatively 
few, so the easiest thing to do is to study them, and 
remember that our other common words will be likely 
to add the other ending. 



accessible 


horrible 


portable 


audible 


indelible 


amiable 


corruptible 


legible 


unspeakable 


credible 


possible 


valuable 


destructible 


resistible 


usable 


divisible 


responsible 


sizeable 


edible 


sensible 


readable 


eligible 


tangible 


unthinkable 


expressible 


terrible 


unbelievable 


flexible 


visible 


breakable 


forcible 




comfortable 
capable 
adaptable 
indispensable 



71. Doubtful Suffixes (continued) 

1. Sometimes mistakes arise in using verb endings -ise 
and -ize. A safe rule to follow is to use -ize when the part 
of the word before the suffix is a complete word ; when 
it is not a complete word that can stand alone, use -ise, 
except in recognize, analyze, and paralyze. 

Among the common words that must be spelled with -ise, 
notice the following : 

advertise enterprise merchandise 

exercise surprise 



102 



Knowing and Using Words 



2. Care must be taken in using the adjective endings 
-eous and -ious not to omit the i or e before -ous. This vowel 
serves various uses, and it is not very hard to learn when to 
use i and when e. 

If the last consonant in the main part of the word is soft 
g or c, e or i is necessary to preserve the soft sound. If the 
original word ended in -ge as in courage, the letter used is e, — 
courageous. If the word ended in ce or cy, i is probably used. 

' fallacious 
gracious 
but { spacious 

religious (from Latin religio, 
whose i it retains) 

If the suffix is to follow a t, the first vowel must be e unless 
it is correct to give the t a sound of sh, as in ambitious. 
Beauteous, where the t is clearly pronounced, has the vowel e. 

courteous 

righteous 

beauteous 

piteous 

Memorize the spelling of the following groups, where e 
and i of the suffix have the importance of a whole syllable 
in their pronunciation. 



courageous 
gorgeous 
outrageous 
advantageous 



but 



ambitious 

conscientious 

superstitious 



gaseous 
hideous 



ceremonious 

copious 

dubious 



spontaneous 

3. The word prophecy sets the rule for most nouns ending 
in a syllable of similar sound; but a few nouns are excep- 
tions, ending in -sy rather than -cy. Study the following, 
noting that though they are spelled like the verb prophesy, 
they are pronounced like the noun prophecy. 

heresy ecstasy 

courtesy hypocrisy 



Memory Groups 
72. Review 



103 



As a review of the use of these troublesome suffixes, 
complete the following words by adding to each, one 
of the suffixes indicated at the head of its column. 



OR, AR, ER, EUR, YR 


IOUS, EOUS 


ENCE, ANCE 


ABLE, IBLE 


begin 


vice 


interfere 


sale 


conquer 


rebel 


differ 


corrupt 


invent 


gas 


accept 


sense 


desert 


ceremony 


cohere 


laugh 


propel 


gorg- 


confide 


marriage 


travel 


hid- 


acquaint 


imagine 


anch- 


right 


exist 


digest 


alt- 


court 


indulgence 


access 


amat- 


relig- 


vary 


accept 


ancest- 


outrage 


reside 


aud- 


aviat- 


malice 


resist 


cred- 


bachel- 






measure 


calend- 






irrit- 


cat — pill- 






notice 


benefact- 






irresist- 


debt- 






response 


ced- 






elig- 


cell- 






leg- 


col- 






force 


•coll- 








corrid- 








equat- 








vineg- 








sulph- 








oyst- 








od- 








H- 








trait- 









APPENDIX 
TABLE I 

COMMON PREFIXES i 



Prefix 


Source 


Usual 
Meaning 


Example 


Root in Example 2 


a or an 


Greek 


without, 


atheist 


theos, god 






not 


apathy 


patho, to feel 


a 


English 


at, in, 


ashore 




ab (dbs) 


Latin 


on 
from 


abnormal 


norma, rule 


ad (a, ac, af, 


Latin 


to 


affix 


figo, to fasten 


ag, al, an, 










. ap, ar, as, 










at) 










ambi or amphi 


Greek 


around, 


amphitheater 


thedtron, & 
theater 






both 


ambidextrous 


dextra, right 
hand 


ana 


Greek 


up, 
through 


analysis 


luo, to break 


ante 


Latin 


before 


antedate 




anti 


Greek 


against 


antipathy 


patho, to feel 


apo 


Greek 


from 


apology 


logos, a word 



1 These do not claim to be complete lists of prefixes and suffixes, 
but only of those most commonly used. 

2 These roots are given only when the original meaning of the 
main body of the word is not obvious. 

105 



106 




Appendix 




COMMON PREFIXES — Continued 


Prefix 


Source 


Usual 
Meaning 


Example 


Root in Example 


be 


English 


by, 

to make 


beside 
benumb 




cata 


Greek 


down 


catastrophe 


strophe, a turn- 
ing 


circum 


Latin 


around 


circum- 
navigate 


navigo, to sail 


con (co, col, 


Latin 


with, to- 


compare 


paro, to make 


com) 




gether 




ready 


de 


Latin 


from, 
down 


depose 


pono, to put 


dia 


Greek 


through 


diameter 


metros, a 
measure 


dis (di, dif) 


Latin 


apart, 
from, 
not 


dissever 
dislike 




ex (e, ec, ef) 


Latin 


out of, 
from 


educate 


duco, to lead 


for 


English 


not, 

from, 

against 


forbid 




fore 


English 


before 


foresee 




hypo 


Greek 


under 


hypodermic 


dermos, skin 


in (il, im, ir) 


Latin 


in, on, 
into, not 


import 
illegal 


porto, to carry 


inter 


Latin 


between 
among 


intersect 


sector, to cut 


mis 


English 


wrongly 


mishap 




non 


Latin 


not 


non- 
existent 





Appendix 



107 



COMMON PREFIXES — Continued 



Prefix 


Source 


Usual 
Meaning 


Example 


Root in Example 


ob (oc, of, op) 


Latin 


against, 
in front 
of 


offer 


fero, to bring 


out 


English 


beyond 


outweigh 




over 


English 


above 


overrule 




para 


Greek 


beside 


parallel 


alios, another 






contrary 

to 
through 


paradox 


dokein, to think 


per 


Latin 


perennial 


annus, & year 


post 


Latin 


after 


postpone 


pono, to place 


pre 


Latin 


before 


predict 


dico, to say 


pro 


Latin 


for, 
forth 


pronoun 
produce 




re 


Latin 


back, 
again 


reconsider 




se 


Latin 


apart 


select 


lego, to gather 


sub (sue, suf, 


Latin 


under 


subway 




sug, sum, 










sup) 










super 


Latin 


above 


supersede 


sedeo, to sit 


syn (sy, syl, 


Greek 


with, 


synthesis 


thesis, an 


sym) 




together 




arranging 


trans 


Latin 


across 


transplant 




un 


English 


not 


unskilled 




under 


English 


beneath 


underrate 




with 


English 


from, 
against 


withdraw 
withstand 





108 



Appendix 



LESS 



TABLE II 
COMMON PREFIXES 



Prefix 


Source 


Usual 
Meaning 


Example 


Root in Example 


bene 


Latin 


well 


benefactor 


facio, to do 


bi (bis) 


Latin 


two, 
twice 


bicycle 


cyclos, a wheel 


contra 


Latin 


against 


contradict 


dico, to say 


(counter) 










extra 


Latin 


beyond 


extraordinary 




Ifiemi 


Greek 


half 


hemisphere 




hyper 


Greek 


too 


hypercritical 




intro 


Latin 


within 


introspec- 
tion 


specto, to look 


mono 


Greek 


one 


monosyl- 
lable 




poly 


Greek 


many 


polygon 




retro 


Latin 


back- 
ward 


retrospect 




semi 


Latin 


half 


semiannual 


annus, a year 


ultra 


Latin 


beyond, 
ex- 
tremely 


ultrafashion- 
able 




vice 


Latin 


instead 
of 


vice- 
president 





Appendix 109 

TABLE III 
COMMON SUFFIXES 

It is hardly possible to give to each suffix one particular 
meaning, for their meanings are variable. It is best to classify 
the suffixes according to the parts of speech in which they 
appear, as noun, adjective, adverb, and verb endings. 

I. The noun suffixes usually have one of the following 
meanings : state of, condition of, one who or that which, 
that which pertains to, act of, that which relates to, place 
where, office of, art of. 



Noun Suffix 


Example of Use 


-acy 


accuracy = ad + euro + acy, state of caring 




for something. 


-ance 


repentance = repent + ance, state of repent- 




ing. 


-ancy 


hesitancy = hesito + ancy, state of waiting. 


-an 


librarian = library + an, one who belongs to sl 




library. 


-ant 


dependant = depend + ant, one who depends. 


-cle 


particle = part -f cle, a small part. 


-cule 


animalcule = animal + cule, a small animal. 


-dom 


kingdom = king + dom, domain of a king. 


-ee 


employee = employ + ee, one who is em- 




ployed. 


-eer (ier) 


engineer = engine + eer, one who runs an 




engine. 


-ence 


eloquence = ex + loquor + ence, state of talk- 




ing out. 


-ency 


presidency = preside + ency, condition of pre- 




siding. 


-ess 


lioness = lion + ess, feminine of lion. 



110 



Appendix 



Noun Suffix 



Example of Use 



-hood 

-ism 

-ist 

-ion 

-ite 

-ity 

-merit 

-mony 

-ness 

-or (er, ar) 



-ry {ary, 
ery, ory) 



-ship 

-tude 
■ure 



childhood = child + hood, state of being a child. 

heroism = hero + ism, state of being a hero. 

novelist = novel + ist, one who writes novels. 

conclusion = conclude + ion, act of concluding. 

favorite = favor + ite, one who is favored. 

activity = active + ity, state of being active. 

resentment = resent + ment, condition of re- 
senting. 

acrimony = acris + mony, state oj 'fremgf sharp. 

loveliness = lovely + ness, state of being lovely. 

governor = govern + or, one who governs. 

laborer = labor + er, one who labors 

beggar = beg + ar, one who begs. 

library = liber + ry, place for books. 

cookery = cook + ery, art of cooking. 

dispensary = dispense + ary, place where 
something is dispensed. 

crematory = cremate + ory, place where 
something is burned. 

stewardship = steward + ship, office of a 
steward. 

quietude = quiet + tude, state of being quiet. 

pleasure = please + we, that which pleases. 



II. The adjective suffixes usually have such meanings 
as these : able to, full of, pertaining to, causing, belonging to, 
made of, tending to. 



Adjective Suffix 



Example of Use 



-able (ible, ble) 
-al 



amiable = ami + able, able to be loved, 
forcible = force + ible, able to force, 
legal = lex + al, pertaining to law. * 



Appendix 



111 



Adjectwe Suffix 



Example of Use 



-ant (eni) 



-ary 

-en 

-er 

-est 

-fid 

-ish 
-ing 
-ive 

-pie 

-ous (ious, 
eous) 

-some 



dependent = depend + ent, tending to 

depend, 
expectant = expect + ant, in a state of 

expecting, 
literary = lit era + ary, pertaining to letters, 
wooden = wood + en, made of wood, 
larger = large + er, comparative degree 

of large, 
largest = large + est, superlative degree 

of large, 
graceful = grace + ful, full of grace, 
yellow = yellow + ish, somewhat yellow, 
going = go + ing, present participle of go. 
imaginative = imagina + ive, having power 

to imagine, 
triple = tri -f pie, threefold. 
courageous = courage + ous, full of 

courage, 
gracious = grace -b ious, full of grace, 
lonesome = lone + some, full of loneliness. 



III. 


Adverb Suffixes 


Meaning 


Example 


-ly 

-ward 


like 
direction of 


directly 
backward 


IV. 



Verb Suffixes 



-en 

-fy 

-ate 
-ise 



Meaning 



to make 
to make 
to make 
to make 



Example 



gladden, to make glad, 
liquefy, to make liquid, 
liberate, to make free, 
realize, to make real. 



112 



Appendix 



TABLE IV 



LATIN AND GREEK WORDS 



Most often Appearing as 

abilis able 

ab-olere to do away 

with 

abundare to overflow 

agere to work, to do 

(act-) 

agger heap 

alienus other 

ambire to go around 

(ambit-) 

amare to love 

anima mind, soul 

annus year 

(enn-) 

anthropos man 

archos ruler 

ars art 

aster star 

auctor one who pro- 
duces 

audire to hear 

autos self 

auxilium help 

battuere beat 

bene well 

binus double 

brevis short 



cadere . 
(cas-) 



to fall 



a Basis of English Words 

caedere to cut 

(cid-) 
capere to take 

(capt-, cept-, 

cip-, cup-) 
causa cause 

(cus-) 
cedere to move, to go 

(ceed-, cess-) 
(ex) cellere . . .to rise 

centum a hundred 

cernere to separate 

(cret-, creet-) 

chronos time 

cidere to kill 

clamare ...... to cry out 

(claim-) 

clarare to make 

clear 
claudere to shut 

(claus-, clud-) 

cognare to know 

complere to fill 

(plet-) 

conciliare to unite 

con-suere to be accus- 
tomed 

copia enough 

cor heart 

(cord-, cour-) 



Appendix 



113 



credere to believe 

(creed-) 

creare to create 

crescere to grow 

(creas-) 

curare to take care 

currere to run 

(curs-) 

damnare to condemn 

(demn-) 
delebilis capable of de- 
struction 
dicere to say 

(diet-) 

diluvium flood 

dirigere to steer 

(direct-) 

dare to give 

docere to teach 

dolere to feel pain 

domum home 

(dat-) 

donare to give 

dubius doubtful 

ducere ....... to lead 

(duct-, duce-) 

edere to eat 

edere to give out, 

publish 

errare to wander 

exercere to drive 



f acilis 

facere 

(fact-, feet-, 

fie-, fit-) 

fallere 

f amilia 

fascinare 

f emina 

fendere 

f erre 

fidere 

figere 

m (fix-) 
finis 

(finit-) 
Hectare. . . 

(flex-) 
fligo ....... 

(flict-) 
fluere .... 

(flux-) 
f orare .... 



easy 

to make, to do 



f ors 

(fort-) 
fortuna. . 
f rangere . 

(fract-) 
fundere. . 

(fus-) 



^erere to bear, to 

(gess-, gest-) carry 



.to deceive 

. family 

.to charm 

. woman 

.keep off 

. to bear 

. to trust, to be 

faithful 
to join 

end 

to bend 

to strike 

to flow 

to bore a 

hole 
strength 

fortune 
to break 

to pour 



114 



Appendix 



gradi to walk, to go 

(gress-) 

gramma a letter 

graphein to write 

(gram-) 
gratia thanks, favor, 

(grao) pleasure 

grex flock 

(greg-) 

habere to have 

(hav-, hib-) 
haerere to stick 

(her-) 
hairein to choose 

(here-) 
haurire to draw 

(haust-) 

honor honor 

horrere to dread 

hygeia health 

hypocrites .... an actor 

ignorare not to know 

imago picture 

insula island 

imperare to command 

ire (it-) to go 

jacere to throw 

(jact-, ject-) 

judicare to judge 

jugum a yoke, bond 

jungere to join 

(junct-) 



klimax a ladder 

krinein to judge 

(krit-) 
kyklos a wheel, circle 

labi to fall 

(laps-) 

labor work 

latus carried 

legere to choose, to 

(lect-, lig-) read 

levare to raise 

lex law 

liber book 

liberus free 

limen threshold 

lingua tongue 

(langu-) 

lira track 

litera a letter 

locus a place 

logos a word 

loqui to talk 

(locut-) 

luctari to struggle 

ludere to play 

(Ins-) 

lumen a light 

lustrare to make 

bright 

magnus large, great 

malus bad 



Appendix 



115 



mandare to command 

(mend-) 

manere to remain 

manus hand 

mare sea 

maturus mature 

medicus pertaining to 

healing 

medius middle 

mens mind 

(ment-) 

mergere to plunge 

merx merchandise 

memorare ... .to bring to 
mind 

metron measure 

migrare to wander 

mirari to wonder 

mittere to send 

(mis-) 

modus measure, 

manner 

monere to advise, to 

warn 
monstrare ... .to show 
mors death 

(mort-) 
mos conduct 

(mor-) 
movere to move 

(mot-, mob-) 

munia duties 

munire to build 

mysterion mystery 



natio nation 

nectere to bind 

nocere to harm 

(nox-) 

nomen name 

nomos law 

norma rule 

notus known 



nunciare . . 
(nounc-) 



announce 



obedire to obey 

oculus eye 

opinari to think 

ordinare to set in order 

ordo order 

origo rise, source 

oro speak 

ordinis rank, order 

ornare to adorn 

paenitere to repent 

(pen-) 

panis bread 

parere to come forth, 

(pear-) to be visible 

parare to make ready 

pars part 

pastor shepherd 

pater father 

pati to suffer 

(pass-) 

pathein to feel 

patria country 



116 



Appendix 



pellere to drive 

pendere to hang 

periri to try 

petere to seek, to 

strive 

phainein to show 

phanein to speak 

philein to love 

physis nature 

phonein to sound 

planare to make level 

plectere to fold 

(plex, ply) 

plere to fill 

plorare to cry out 

plus more 

polus much, many 

ponere to place 

populus people 

portare to carry 

possum to be able 

prassein to work 

(pract-, prat-) 
premere to press 

(press-) 
pretium price, value 

(prec-) 

privus private 

probare to prove 

(prov-) 

profiteri to profess 

prudens , wise 

punctus point 

(point-) 



quaerere to ask 

(quir-) 
quartus one fourth 

ratio reason 

regere to rule 

(rect-, rex-) 

religio religion 

ridere to laugh 

(ris-) 
ripa bank, shore 

(riv-) 

rogare to ask 

rumor report 

rumpere to break 

(rupt-) 

sacer holy 

scandere to climb 

schola a school 

scire to know 

scribere to write 

(script-) 

sculpere to carve 

secare to cut 

(sect-) 
sedere to sit 

(sess-) 

senex old man 

sentire to feel 

sepein to infect 

(sept-) 
sequi to follow 

(secut-) 



Appendix 



117 



serere to claim 

(sert-) 

servare to serve 

severus strict 

signare to sign 

similis like 

sincerus pure 

singulus single 

sipare to throw 

sistere to cause to 

stand 

solus alone 

solvere to loose 

(solu-) 

sonare to make a 

noise 

sophos wise 

spargere scatter 

(spers-) 

species a kind, a show 

spectare to look 

sperare to hope 

spicere to look 

(spis-) 

spirare to breathe 

splendere to shine 

spondere to promise 

(spons-) 
stare to stand 

(stance-, 

stat-, stit-) 
struere to build, to 

(struct-) set in order 

suadere to persuade 



surgere to rise 

suus his own 

tangere to touch 

(tact-) 

tegere to cover 

telos far 

temperare ... .to calm, to 
modify 

temptare to try 

tempus time 

tendere to stretch 

tenere to hold 

(tent-, tin-, 

tain-) 

terrere to fear 

theos god 

tingere to dye 

(tinct-) 
trahere to draw 

(tract-) 

tremere to tremble 

tribuere to grant 

tueri to watch 

(tut-) 
turbo disorder 

urbs . ' city 

uti to use 

(usus) 

vagari to wander 

valere to be strong, 

to be worth 
vallum wall 



118 



Appendix 



vanus empty 

varius varied 

venire to come 

(vent-) 

vereri to fear 

vertare to turn 

(vers-) 

verus true 

videre to see 

(vis-) 



vigilare to watch 

vincere to conquer 

(vict-) 
vivere to live 

. (vit_) 
visitare to go to see 

vocare to call, say 

velle (volo) . . .to wish 

vulgus the common 

people 



COMMON WORDS OFTEN MISSPELLED 

You can readily realize how useless it would be to study long 
lists of words just for the sake of knowing how to spell them. 
It is the words that we use more or less frequently that we 
want to know how to spell, especially the words that we are 
likely to use in friendly or business correspondence, and in 
our classes at school or college. The lists of words which 
follow include those in current everyday use, that are likely 
to be misspelled, arranged in groups according to the places 
where they are used. 



Household Words 



ousekeeping 
cocoa 


turnip 


dessert 


faucet 


raisin 


salad 


biscuit 


furnace 


cinnamon 


vegetable 


molasses 


kerosene 


gelatine 


lemon 


mustard 


plumber 


caramel 


peach 


mackerel 


saucer 


poached 


pear 


sandwich 


sieve 


poultry 


currant 


vinegar 


measure 


knuckle 


rhubarb 


sulphur 


knife 


grease 


banana 


cereal 


knead 


roast 


melon 


sausage 


butcher 


turkeys 


cantaloupe 


sirloin 


groceries 


asparagus 


raspberry 


steak 


ironing 


lettuce 


almond 


croquette 


recipe 


tomato 


flour 


vanilla 


porcelain 


spinach 


sugar 


herbs 


cinder 



119 



120 



Appendix 



potatoes 


bread 


oyster 


enamel 


cabbage 


coffee 


macaroni 


culinary 


pumpkin 


chocolate 


asbestos 


utensil 


cucumber 


yolk 


refrigerator 


kernel 


celery 


omelet 


spigot 


meringue 


Furnishings : 








bureau 


doily 


carpenter 


ceiling 


chiffonier 


pillow 


electricity 


frieze 


chandelier 


cretonne 


telephone 


hearth 


mirror 


curtain 


scissors 


porch 


settee 


mattress 


threshold 


veranda 


automatic 


portrait 


knob 


mantelpiece 


vacuum 


crystal 


mahogany 


lattice 


fragile 


unbleached 


furniture 


library 




cellar 


paneling 




Clothing : 








plaited 


tailor 


crochet 


diamond 


skein 


veil 


sleeve 


jewelry 


mackintosh 


handkerchief . 


material 


trousers 


baste 


feather 


milliner 


satin 


pattern 


ostrich 


woolen 


tissue 


kimono 


knot 


trousseau 


hosiery 


khaki 


coat 


cambric 


organdie 


flannel 


collar 


calico 


gingham 


zephyr 


cloth 


corduroy 


nainsook 


worsted 


clothes 


plaid 


blouse 


button 


waist 


cashmere 


taffeta 


The sick room : 








abscess 


larynx 


glycerine 


poultice 


catarrh 


appendix 


liniment 


bandage 


cholera 


tuberculosis 


antitoxine 


lemonade 



Appendix 



121 



diarrhea 


cataract 


ammonia 


tongue 


digestion 


ague 


chloroform 


muscle 


epidemic 


hoarse 


alcohol 


stomach 


grippe 


bronchitis 


ether 


knee 


hemorrhage 


asthma 


quinine 


odor 


measles 


ptomaine 


vaseline 


perspiration 


neuralgia 


nausea 


camphor 


vaccinate 


pneumonia 


cough 


medicine 


quarantine 


quinsy 


breathe 


homeopathic 


remedy 


disease 


bruise 


physician 


convalescent 


artery 


typhoid 


surgeon 


contagious 


ligament 


rheumatism 


doctor 


sanitary 


diphtheria 


paralysis 


invalid 


hospital 


cancer 


ache 


reservoir 


ambulance 


palate 


nervous 


syringe 


thermometer 


Flowers : 








dahlia 


nasturtium 


hydrangea 


fuchsia 


dandelion 


geranium 


narcissus 


daffodil 


gladiolus 


chrysanthemum rhododendron 


phlox 


Family life in 


general : 






apartment 


umbrella 


almanac 


anxiety 


tenement 


parasol 


calendar 


nuisance 


tenant 


baggage 


liquor 


wholesome 


oculist 


valise 


wealth 


necessary 


spectacles 


carriage 


expense 


anniversary 


dentist 


mucilage 


afford 


animal 


matron 


tobacco 


economical 


delicate 


relative 


cologne 


wasteful 


cemetery 


daughter 


breakfast 


borrow 


minute 


niece 


hungry 


balance 


complexion 


guest 


appetite 


trouble 


mosquitoes 



122 



Appendix 



quarrel 


angry 


grief 


caterpillar 


thief 


busy 


mischief 


icicle 


burglar 


heavy 


fatigue 


funeral 




Social Words 




Church : 








ceremony 


contribution 


prodigal 


temperance 


priest 


missionary 


idol 


psalm 


altar 


chapel 


revival 


congregation 


testament 


providence 


heresy 


catechism 


baptize 


heathen 


synagogue 


repentance 


religious 


audience 


cathedral 


aisle 


Amusements : 








croquet 


chauffeur 


baseball 


'waltz 


whistle 


garage 


banquet 


kodak 


umpire 


yacht 


luncheon 


pennant 


captain 


parade 


phonograph 


picnicking 


sleigh 


pianist 


orchestra 


hammock 


rehearse 


invitation 


playwright 


euchre 


pleasure 


aeroplane 


pageant 


motor 


canoe 


theater 


tournament 


billiards 


automobile 


circus 


golf 


bicycle 


Charities, clubs. 


public affairs 






dependent 


candidate 


bazaar 


prohibition 


environment 


league 


committee 


asylum 


organization 


association 


citizen 


pamphlet 


foreign 


assistance 


campaign 


secretary 




delegate 


suffrage 




Often used in letters : 






affectionately 


con 


dially 


request 


sincerely 


accept 


apologize 



Appendix 



123 



liscellaneous : 
accompany 


magazine 


millionaire 


embarrassment friend 




restaurant 


chaperon 


passenger 


chivalry 


character 


photographer 


engagement 


fashionable 


amateur 


celebration 


conductor 


bachelor 


taxicab 


souvenir 


colonel 




fiance 


neighbor 


etiquette 
Business Words 


fiancee 


salary- 


criminal 


enterprise 


statistics 


bargain 


municipal 


success 


certificate 


balance 


interest 


cashier 


competent 


debt 


deficit 


preferred 


mortgage 


principal 


controller 


embezzle 


creditor 


receipt 


counterfeit 


financier 


usury 


forfeit 


bankrupt 


guarantee 


legacy 


heir 


remittance 


invoice 


assets 


credit 


ledger 


liability 


collateral 


truly 


regular 


millionaire 


debtor 


sincerely 


oblige 


calendar 


capital 


respectfully 


convenient 


secretary 


position 


request 


assure 


catalogue 


situation 


referring 


recommend 


stenograph 


er application 


address 


telegraph 


typewriter 


employee 


information 


telephone 


president 


accountant 


register 


elevator 


customer 


journal 


particular 


janitor 


operator 


diary 


weight 


commercial 


schedule 


proprietor 


capacity 


competition 


compromise notary 


freight 


experience 


efficient 


clerical 



124 



Appendix 



factory 


article 


franchise 


parcel 


manufacture 


brief 


judicial 


arbitration 


machinery 


schedule 


license 


credentials 


mercantile 


responsible 


legislature 


warrant 



Schoolroom Words 



English : 



volume 


specific 


auxiliary 


synonym 


comedy 


subordinate 


dictionary 


interrogative 


tragedy 


syllable 


encyclopedia humorous 


imagination 


alphabet 


rhetoric 


predicate 


imperative 


character 


typical 


demonstrative 


legend 


biography 


misspell 


possessive 


literary 


poetry 


simile 


appositive 


monosyllable 


coherence 


metaphor 


intransitive 


polysyllable 


grammar 


elegy 


declension 


paragraph 


illustrate 


dialogue 


irregular 


phrase 


description 


neuter 


infinitive 


rhyme 


exaggerate 


nominative 


punctuation 


rhythm 


abbreviate 


diphthong 


pronunciation 


sentence 


vocabulary 


emphasis 


exposition 


idiom 


apostrophe 


syntax 


narration 


soliloquy 


anecdote 


participle 


iambic 


Mathematics : 








numerator 


algebraic 


semicircle 


ninety 


denominator 


equation 


vertical 


twelfth 


addition 


solution 


horizontal 


eighth 


subtraction 


circumference perpendicular geometry 


multiplication diameter 


parallel 


principle 


division 


diagonal 


isosceles 


cylinder 


proportion 


polygon 


pyramid 


arithmetic 


decimal 


hexagon 


forty 


factoring 



Appendix 



W5 



Geography : 



arctic 


frigid 


crater 


continent 


antarctic 


glacier 


island 


cyclone 


longitude 


equator 


climate 


blizzard 


latitude 


meridian 


mirage 


avalanche 


strait 


anthracite 


atmosphere 


peninsula 


plateau 


canyon 


temperature 


i granite 


isthmus 


ravine 


tropical 


prairie 


foreign 


planet 


hemisphere 


equator 


History : 








parliament 


municipal 


martyr 


civilization 


pageant 


independence architecture dynasty 


representative ancient 


tariff 


citizenship 


Science : 
oxygen 


zoology 


specimen 


disinfect 


eclipse 


physiology 


mercury 


microscope 


laboratory 


hygiene 


gasoline 


prism 


acid 


chemistry 


naphtha 


buoyant 


biology 


physics 


turpentine 


capsule 


geology 


thermometer 


ammonia 


circuit 


General : 
chalk 


gymnastics 


ignorance 


diligence 


lead-pencil 


apparatus 


develop 


commencement 


eraser 


assignment 


vacation 


discipline 


review 


exercise 


university 


superintendent 


recess 


analysis 


college 


examination 


principal 


summary 


seminary 


technical 


professor 


systematic 


scholarship 


saucy 


sophomore 


answer 


distribute 


guess 


manual 


average 


lecture 


learn 


athletics 


clever 


absence 


exemption 



INDEX 



Accent : indicated in dictionary, 5- 
6 ; practice in correct, 6-7. 

Brewer: "Dictionary of Phrase 
and Fable," 22, 23. 

Component parts : definition of, 30 ; 
separation of words into, 31, 58- 
60, 61, 62, 76-77. 

Definition : correct expression of, 
14-15 ; practice in, 15-16, 21, 25- 
26, 28, 37, 38, 39, 53, 58-60. 

Derivation : dictionary account of, 
21-22 ; help of, in spelling and 
definition, 22, 27 ; practice in 
finding, 23-26 ; from foreign 
languages, 24-25 ; derivative 
words grouped in families, 56-57. 

Description: words for, 70-71. 

Diacritical marks : definition of, 1 
table of, 1-2. 

Dictionary : indicates vowel sounds 
1 ; " Webster's International ' 
diacritical marks, 1 ; extract 
from, 21 ; key and its use, 4-5 
obscure letters, 5 ; practice in use 
of, 20-21, 25-26, 28; gives 
derivations, 21-23, 25 ; abbre- 
viations, 25. 

Diphthongs : pronunciation of, 3-5. 

Double letters : as result of euphonic 
change of prefix, 36-40 ; at junc- 
tion of prefix or suffix with root, 
44-48, 51-52. 

Enunciation : its importance, 6 ; 
practice in, 7. 

Euphonic change : definition of, 35 ; 
practice in word-building with, 
36-40. 

Exact word : practice in finding, 63- 
72. 



Interpretation : of words, 73-82. 

Literal meaning : definition of 
term, 31 ; practice in finding, 
58-60, 61, 62. 

Misspelling : caused by mispro- 
nunciation, 7-11 ; caused by 
confusion of words of similar 
sound, 14-19. 

Narrative : words for, 71-72. 

Never again List: 4, 8, 11, 15. 

Over-worked words : 69-70. 

Plurals : spelling of, 91-94. 

Prefixes : definition of, 29-30 ; use 
in building words, 30 ; lists of, 
31-32, 105-108; lists of words 
with, 32-34, 40 ; practice in add- 
ing to roots, 36-40, 51 ; used in 
making family groups, 56-58. 

Pronunciation: indicated by dia- 
critical marks, 1-2 ; of vowels, 
2-5 ; of diphthongs, 3-5 ; of 
consonants, 9-11; key to, 4-5; 
practice in, 4-13 ; a cause of 
misspelling, 7-11 ; not always a 
guide to spelling, 14. 

Proper names : spelling of, 94-95. 

Roots : definition of, 27 ; practice 
in finding, 28-29 ; practice in 
combining with prefixes, 36-40 ; 
changes with suffix added, 43 ; 
basis of family groups of words, 
56-58 ; Latin and Greek words as 
roots, 112-118. 

Similar sound : words of, 14-19. 

Spelling : danger points in, 54-55 ; 
one hundred demons, 54-55 ; 
memory groups to help, 83-91 ; 
common words often misspelled, 
119-125. 



127 



128 



Index 



Suffixes : definition of, 29-30 ; use 
in building words, 30 ; lists of, 
41-42, 109-111 ; practice in add- 
ing, 42-44, 46, 48, 49-50, 51-52 ; 
analysis of words with, 53-54 ; 
used to make parts of speech, 41- 
42, 44 ; rules for use of, 44-52 ; 



used in making family groups, 

56-57 ; doubtful, 96-103. 
Supplementary lists : 12-13, 18-19, 

25-26, 33-44. 
Synonyms : practice with, 21. 
Word-building : practice in, 60-61, 

66. 



ENGLISH 



Elementary English Composition 

By Professor F. N. Scott, of the University of Michigan, and Professor 
J. V. Denney, of Ohio State University. i2ino, cloth, 311 pages. 
Price, 80 cents. 

THIS book is designed for the first work of composition and 
rhetoric in secondary schools. 
The authors have not attempted to write a systematic treatise 
upon rhetoric. Rather they have constructed a series of definite, 
concrete problems, based upon attractive material and challenging 
curiosity, each problem discovering to the pupil who solves it a 
practical principle, or a useful idiom, or a typical situation in life. 
Three aims are kept especially in view : — 
I. To present the familiar principles in a novel and attractive 
manner. 

II. To emphasize the social aspect of composition; that is, 
to keep constantly before the pupil the " other man " for whom 
he is writing or speaking. 

III. To give due weight to the importance of the relation of 
speaking and writing. 
The Chapters are : — 

Chapter I. Oral Composition. 

II. Written Composition. 

III. Description, Oral and Written. 

IV. Narration, Oral and Written. 
V. Explanation, Oral and Written. 

VI. Argument, Oral and Written. 
VII. Figures of Speech. 
Errors of Speech and Debated Usages. 
Exercises for Grammar Review. 

The book contains twenty-six attractive illustrations which 
are made the basis of compositions. 

Such a bare detail of the plan gives little idea of the vigor, 
resource, and originality of the authors, which touch the dullest 
pupil, and which have gained for the Elementary English Com- 
position the widest use of any book in this subject. 

1 



ENGLISH 



The New Composition-Rhetoric 

By F. N. Scott, Professor of Rhetoric in the University of Michigan, 
and J. V. Denney, Professor of English in Ohio State University. 
i2mo, cloth, 480 pages. Price, $1.20. 

THIS book embodies the best features of former editions of the 
Composition-Rhetoric and the Composition-Literature. It 
is intended for the higher classes in academies and high schools, 
and is especially suited to follow the authors 1 Elementary Eng- 
lish Composition. 

Throughout the work the aim is to keep the student's powers 
of construction and criticism in proper adjustment. The simple, 
fundamental principles that underlie both composition and the 
appreciation of literature are discovered inductively by the study 
of numerous selections, and are at once applied in the student's 
practice. The book gives particular emphasis to oral composition. 

The chapters are: I. Units of Composition. II. How Com- 
positions Grow. III. Paragraphs. IV. Sentences. V. Words. 
VI. The Forms of Prose Discourse. VII. Description. VIII. 
Narration. IX. Exposition. X. Argumentation. XI. Poetry. 
XII. Figures of Speech. Appendices: A. Directions for Writ- 
ten Work. B. Capitals and Punctuation. C. Common Faults 
with Marks used in Correcting Them. 

The topics suggested for themes cover a wide range of interests. 
They are drawn not only from literature, but from student life 
and, in particular, from the vocations toward which certain classes 
of students are naturally tending. Composition is regarded as a 
social act, and the student is therefore constantly led to think of 
himself as writing or speaking for a specified group of readers or 
hearers. 

The aim and method of the book are easily stated, but the 
qualities which make it different from others — its strong and 
abundant vitality, its wealth of inspiration, its unfailing stimulus 
to the pupil — are not so readily described ; they will be thor- 
oughly understood by teachers who are familiar with any of the 
work of the authors. 

2 



ENGLISH 



Practical High School Speller 

By Tobias O. Chew, Superintendent of City Schools, Washburn, 
Wisconsin. i2mo, cloth, 102 pages. Price, 40 cents. 

7" HIS book contains the words most often misspelled by high 
school pupils — a list of two thousand, determined by corre- 
spondence with ten thousand teachers in representative secondary 
schools in every state in the United States. The first word in 
Lesson I was sent in by seven hundred high school teachers ; the 
other words show by their order the frequency with which they 
were suggested by teachers. The book, then, is built on the 
judgment of those best qualified to know — the teachers them- 
selves. 

A most useful feature of the Speller is the arrangement of the 
words so as to make it easy for the pupils to learn to spell them. 
Each lesson has twenty-five words, printed in script in a neat 
column, so that the pupil readily visualizes them. Often Spellers 
contain a large amount of interesting information about a word, 
but the word itself appears either divided into syllables or so 
placed on the page that the pupil gets no adequate picture of 
how it looks, either written or printed. 

Beside the words in script, the Speller has them in print, divided 
into syllables, with the accents, and followed by brief phrases 
which illustrate their proper use. A few practical rules for spell- 
ing are included. 

The Literature Note-Book 

By Professor F. N. SCOTT, of the University of Michigan, and F. E. 
Bryant, of the University of Kansas. Price, each, 6 cents; per 
dqeen, 60 cents ; per hundred, $5.00. 

THIS is a blank-book for book reviews and reports on home 
reading. On the front cover are seventeen numbered ques- 
tions, each suggesting a possible treatment for the book review. 
The teacher indicates a question, or series of questions, by num- 
ber, and the pupil understands that his review is to answer these 
questions. There are directions for both teacher and pupil. On 
the back cover is a list of books for home reading. 

15